BIRTH: 1791 HAYEZ
Died on 10 February 1667: Juan
Bautista Martínez del Mazo, Spanish painter born in 1612.
Del Mazo was a pupil of Diego Velázquez, married his daughter in 1633, and succeeded him as court painter in 1661. Among his very few signed works is a portrait of Queen Mariana (1666), and many of the works now attributed to him were formerly thought to be of Velázquez, whose mature style del Mazo imitated with great skill.
The Artist's Family (1660, 148x174cm) The Hunting Party at Aranjuez View of the City of Zaragoza _ View of Zaragoza (1547, 181x331cm)
Infante Don Baltazar Carlos (1635, 144x109cm) _ Mazo, one of the true followers of Velázquez, is credited with a number of works formerly attributed to his master (and his father-in-law). This portrait represent the son of King Philip IV. The influence of Velázquez is very strong both in the composition and in the landscape background. It is assumed that this is a variant of a lost Velázquez portrait. Some scholars attribute this painting to Alonso Cano.
Queen Mariana of Spain in Mourning (1666, 197x146cm) _ The painting follows the style of Velázquez in its handling, though lacking his supreme skill as a painter of convincing interiors. The room in the background represents the Pieza Ochavada in the Royal Palace in Madrid, before the destruction of the building by fire in 1734. The boy king Charles II is shown there with a group of attendants and a toy coach.
Died on 10 January 1674: Leonaert
Bramer, Dutch genre and history painter born on 24 December
Bramer was active mainly in his native Delft. He traveled widely in Italy and France, 1614-28, and drew on a variety of influences for his most characteristic paintings - small nocturnal scenes with vivid effects of light. Works such as the Scene of Sorcery have earned him the reputation an interesting independent who cannot easily be pigeonholed. Bramer was also one of the few Dutch artists to paint frescoes in Holland, but none of his work in the medium survived. He evidently knew well the greatest of his Delft contemporaries, Vermeer, for he came to the latter's defense when his future mother-in-law was trying to prevent him from marrying her daughter. In fact, it is likely that Bramer, rather than Carel Fabritius, was Vermeer's teacher.
The Adoration of the Magi (1630) _ Bramer is best remembered today for his small nocturnal scenes illuminated by phosphorescent colors and streaks of light. His contemporaries considered him an outstanding wall painter and, he was one of the artists commissioned by Frederik Hendrik to help decorate his hunting lodge at Honselaarsdijk, and he also received several other important commissions. Bramer was one of the few seventeenth-century Dutch artists who painted frescoes in Holland; none have survived the Dutch climate. Bramer's name has been invoked in connection with Rembrandt's early phase. The question of whether Bramer's early night scenes influenced Rembrandt, or if Rembrandt inspired Bramer's late works, is best answered negatively. The resemblance between their works is superficial. It is safe to say both artists arrived at their results independently.
Born on 10 February 1791 and
Died on 10 February 1882: Francesco Hayez, Italian historical painter,
Hayez was born in Venice. He studied under Maggiotto, and then at the Academy of Venice; after which he went to Rome, where he won the first prize from the Academy of Saint Luke. He afterwards then went to Milan where he was appointed a professor of the Academy. He painted frescoes in the Vatican in Rome, and 'Rinaldo and Armida' for the Academy of Venice. He died in Milan.
Rinaldo and Armida (1813) Crusaders Thirsting near Jerusalem (1846)
The Kiss (1859) _ The Kiss _ a work which reveals the principal components of the style of the founder of Lombard Romanticism, i.e. the influence of the Venetian painting – in the sense of a harking back to sixteenth-century artists like Titian and Savoldo – and an abstraction of Purist derivation.
Alessandro Manzoni (118x92cm)
Died on 10 February 1765: Jean-Baptiste
Henri Deshays (or Deshayes) de Colleville le Romain,
French artist born in December 1729.
Son-in-law of François Boucher. Studied under Carle Vanloo.
Deshays enjoyed a brief, but brilliant, career; he was extolled by Diderot as "the first painter of the nation" (Salon of 1761). Born in Colleville, near Rouen, he spent his formative years in Normandy. He studied first with his father, a minor painter, subsequently receiving instruction in drawing from Collin de Vermont, religious painting from Jean Restout, and the rococo style from François Boucher. He won the Prix de Rome in 1751 but spent the next three years in the studio of Carle Vanloo before taking up residence at the French Academy in Rome, then under the direction of Charles Natoire. Deshays returned to Paris in 1758, married the elder daughter of Boucher, and was made a full member of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1759. The artist exhibited at only four official Salons, all to extraordinary acclaim. Deshays's rich imagination and powers of expression were inspired by the great history painters of the seventeenth century, Eustache Le Sueur, Charles Le Brun, Rubens, and the Carracci (Agostino [1557-1602], Annibale[1560-1609], Lodovico [1555-1619]) . The majority of his oeuvre is made up of religious and mythological compositions, conceived in the grand French decorative tradition.
The Abduction of Helen (1761)
Saint Andrew Refusing to Worship Idols. (1759, 445x215cm) _ The subject is drawn from Jacques de Voragine's Golden Legend. It shows the martyrdom of Saint Andrew, when he is about to be nailed to the cross and is asked to worship idols. The painting was intended for the Church of Rouen whose patron saint is this holy apostle. According to Jacques de Voragine (De Sancto Andrea Apostolo), the proconsul of Achaea Aegeus (whose wife Saint Andrew had converted and baptized) told Saint Andrew, who was trying to convert him too: "Tu es Andreas, qui superstitiosam praedicas sectam, quam Romani principes nuper exterminare iusserunt." And after having him imprisoned, at last et ad sacrificia idolorum iterum invitare coepit dicens: "Nisi mihi obtemperaveris, in ipsam, quam laudasti, crucem faciam te suspendi."
Died on 10 February 1861: Francis
Danby, British artist born on 16 November 1793.
English painter of Irish birth. He was a landowner’s son and studied art at the Dublin Society. In 1813 he visited London, then worked in Bristol, initially on repetitious watercolors of local scenes: for example View of Hotwells, the Avon Gorge (1818). In about 1819 he entered the cultivated circle of George Cumberland (1754-1849) and the Rev. John Eagles (1783-1855). Danby’s discovery of the ‘poetry of nature’ in local scenery and insignificant incident was influenced by the theories of Eagles, published as The Sketcher (1856), and, less directly, by those of William Wordsworth, who had been associated with Bristol earlier in the century. Danby’s distinctive work began with the small panel paintings he produced for his Bristol audience. Boy Sailing a Little Boat (1822.) recalls the rustic scenes of William Collins and the Bristol artist Edward Villiers Rippingille, but Danby emphasized the effect of sun and shade rather than sentiment
Danby became the best-known member of the Bristol school of painters but preferred to exhibit more ambitious paintings in London. The Upas, or Poison-tree in the Island of Java attracted considerable attention when first shown at the British Institution in 1820, by its large scale (168x229cm) and sublime motif: a despairing adventurer coming upon the remains of his predecessors in the moonlit poisoned valley. It has deteriorated badly, like many of his works. Disappointed Love (1821) was his first Royal Academy exhibit. It differs from his Bristol works in its narrative content and in the pathetic fallacy by which the oppressive trees and wilting weeds echo the girl’s despair.
When Danby moved to London in 1824 he abandoned naturalistic landscape and contemporary genre subjects to concentrate on painting poetical landscapes in the manner of Claude Lorrain and J. M. W. Turner’s Snow Storm: Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps (1812), and also large biblical scenes to rival John Martin. Danby’s relationship with Martin was ambiguous, but undoubtedly competitive. Danby was elected ARA following the exhibition at the Royal Academy in 1825 of the Delivery of Israel out of Egypt (Exodus. xiv) (1825). His poetic treatment of landscape seems to have inspired Martin’s Deluge, which was shown the following year at the British Institution. Danby himself was already contemplating painting a Deluge and his An Attempt to Illustrate the Opening of the Sixth Seal in turn owed much to Martin’s conception of the Sublime.
Danby quarreled with the Royal Academy in 1829, when not elected RA (Constable won by one vote). At the same time his marriage had collapsed, and he had taken a mistress; his wife left London with the Bristol artist, Paul Falconer Poole, whom she subsequently married. The ensuing scandal forced Danby to move abruptly to Paris in 1830. Between 1831 and 1836 he worked in Geneva, producing chiefly watercolors and topographical paintings. He then lived in Paris, copying Old Master paintings. He returned to London late in 1838 where Deluge (1840.) reestablished his reputation when exhibited privately in Piccadilly, London, in May 1840. A huge rock rises in the midst of the flood, swarming with figures who struggle to gain the highest point. Their diminution implies immensity. The color is appropriately, but uncharacteristically, somber. Despite its success, it was his last work of this type.
Danby continued to paint poetic fantasy landscapes throughout the 1840s and 1850s (e.g. Enchanted Castle - Sunset, 1841), although they became increasingly unfashionable. He also produced landscapes and marine paintings, which derive in color and conception, although not in execution, from those of Turner. These found admirers, although they were too rich in color and imprecise in detail for wide popularity. Evening Gun (1848, destroyed, but replica exists), showing naval vessels in harbor, was well received at the Royal Academy in 1848 and the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1855. Danby moved to Exmouth, Devon, in 1847 where he built boats and painted. He was embittered by a life of nearly constant debt and by his failure to gain academic honors. He died a few days after Poole was elected RA. Two of his sons, James Francis Danby (1816-75) and Thomas Danby (1817-86), became painters.
The Deluge (1840, 284x452cm) _ This painting depicts the story of the Flood as told in the book of Genesis (6:12 - 8:22). It shows the terrible punishment brought down by a wrathful God upon sinful mankind.
Scene from A Midsummer Night's Dream (20x28cm).