CURRENT UPDATES: TODAY2 TO TODAY+2
an August 01:
2002 The UN releases its report on Jenin, about Illegal Israeli actions in Occupied East Jerusalem and the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territory from the beginning of March to 07 May 2002. It is mainly about human rights violations in the Jenin refugee camp (03 to 18 April 2002). The UN investigation was opposed by Israel, which denied access to Jenin and the West Bank.
2002 Chinese girl Yukun Jia, 12 [photo >], is found missing, together with her luggage, from her group of some 26 Chinese kids from three Beijing schools, accompanied by half-a-dozen adults, just arrived at 11:00 from China at San Francisco International Airport on their way to a US Space Camp in Huntsville, Alabama. Two days later it is discovered that relatives she has in Massachusetts came for her, took her as soon as she cleared Customs, and that she is safe and happy with them. She had had to deny having any relatives or friends in the US in order to be allowed to leave China.
2001 In Azerbaidjan a law goes into effect switching the alphabet from Cyrillic to an Aseri Latin.
2001 Derek Zavislake, owner of a small Toronto coffee shop, reports that he has received a bill for C$2.4 billion (US$1.6 billion) from Canada's postal service for his coffee beans mailings, a computer error.
2000 A US military court in Germany sentenced Army Staff Sgt. Frank Ronghi to life in prison without parole for sexually assaulting and killing Merita Shabiu, an 11-year-old ethnic Albanian girl, while on peacekeeping duty in Kosovo.
|1997 Boeing's management not
equal to its purchase of McDonnell-Douglas
Boeing purchases its archrival, McDonnell-Douglas. The deal, valued at $16.3 billion, seemingly leaves Boeing as the unchallenged king of commercial aircraft production. Investors initially bid Boeing’s stock as high as $60.50 shortly before the deal is closed. However, with a downturn in orders from Asia, Boeing’s stock sank to a low of $43 in October 1997. The New York Times at the time cited Wall Street’s fears about management’s ability to ease the workforce woes and production delays that had left the company with a backlog of orders.
1996 In a political victory for President Clinton, a federal jury
in Little Rock, Ark., acquitted two Arkansas bankers of misapplying bank
funds and conspiracy to boost his political career. (The jury deadlocked
on seven other counts.)
1996 At the Atlanta Olympics, Michael Johnson broke his world track record by more than three-tenths of a second, winning the 200 meters in 19.32 seconds.
1995 Egipto y Jordania sellan en Alejandría su reconciliación tras cinco años de crisis en sus relaciones como consecuencia de la guerra del Golfo.
1995 Westinghouse Electric Corporation buys CBS for $5.4 billion. Founded in 1886, Westinghouse was primarily a power company before making a play to become a media power.
1994 Llamamiento a la reconciliación germano-polaca de los presidentes de ambos países, Roman Herzog y Lech Walesa, en Varsovia.
1990 Iraq pulls out of talks with Kuwait
1990 IBM sells its typewriter and keyboard businesses. The move signaled IBM's increasing focus on the personal computer market. IBM also discontinued production of several of its PS/2 systems due to poor sales.
1990 Ashton Tate released a new version of its software package, dBase IV. Ashton Tate had dominated the database market in the 1980s but began to slide in the 1990s. At the height of the company's success in the mid-1980s, founder George Tate died of a heart attack at his desk.
1987 Crossbow flight record (2,005 yds 1'9") set by Harry Drake in Nevada
1972 1st article exposing Wategate scandal (Bernstein-Woodward)
1965 Guerra del Vietnam: el Vietcong consigue aislar la base estadounidense de Da Nang.
1960 Benin (Dahomey) gains independence from France
1958 Las tropas estadounidenses se retiran del territorio cubano. (???)
1958 US 1st class postage up to $0.04 (had been $0.03 for 26 years)
1957 The United States and Canada reached agreement to create the North American Air Defense Command.
1954 The Geneva Accords divide Vietnam into two countries at the 17th parallel. US complicity in the overthrow of South Vietnam's president made it impossible to stay uninvolved in the war.
1954 Italia ratifica el tratado sobre la Comunidad Defensiva Europea.
1953 Northern Rhodesia becomes part of Federation of Rhodesia & Nyasaland
1950 King Leopold of Belgium abdicates, Baudouin becomes king Balduino presta juramento como rey de Bélgica.
1950 La URSS se reintegra al Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU.
1950 Territory of Guam created
1950 Lead elements of the US 2nd Infantry Division arrive in Korea from the United States.
1946 Los griegos se manifiestan mediante referéndum a favor del regreso del rey Jorge II.
1946 US President Truman establishes Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)
1946 US President Truman signed the Fulbright Program into law, establishing the scholarships named for Sen. William J. Fulbright. In 1946, the Atomic Energy Commission was established.
1944 Adam Clayton Powell is elected 1st Black congressman from North-East US.
1943 Race riot in Harlem NYC
1943 Birmania proclama su independencia.
1941 Grumman TBF Avenger torpedo plane makes its first flight.
1939 Synthetic vitamin K is produced for the first time.
1937 Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany becomes operational.
1936 The Olympic games opened in Berlin with a ceremony presided over by Adolf Hitler.
1933 National Recovery Administration (NRA) established.
1928 Diputados croatas fundan un Parlamento separatista del resto de Yugoslavia.
1927 Se produce el primer alzamiento comunista en China, en Nantchang.
|1914 The Great War erupts
Four days after Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Germany and Russia declare war against each other, France mobilizes, and the first German army units cross into Luxembourg in preparation for the German invasion of France. In addition to the countries already mentioned, Belgium also mobilizes. Shots are fired between French and German border patrols. Italy declares neutrality.
Over the next four days, Russia, France, Belgium, and Great Britain would all line up against Austria-Hungary and Germany, and Germany would launch its invasion of Belgium.
On 28 June 1914, in an event that is widely regarded as sparking the outbreak of World War I, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian empire, was shot to death with his wife by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Ferdinand had been inspecting his uncle's imperial armed forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina, despite the threat of Serbian nationalists who wanted these Austro-Hungarian possessions to join newly independent Serbia..
Austria-Hungary blamed the Serbian government for the attack and hoped to use the incident as justification for settling the problem of Slavic nationalism once and for all. However, as Russia supported Serbia, an Austria-Hungary declaration of war was delayed until its leaders received assurances from German leader Kaiser Wilhelm II that Germany would support their cause in the event of a Russian intervention.
On 28 July Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and the tenuous peace between Europe's great powers collapsed. On 29 July Austro-Hungarian forces began to shell the Serbian capital of Belgrade, and Russia, Serbia's ally, ordered a troop mobilization against Austria-Hungary. On 01 August the Germans invade Luxembourg. France, allied with Russia, began to mobilize on 01 August. France and Germany declared war against each other on 03 August. After crossing through neutral Luxembourg, the Germany army invaded Belgium on the night of August 3-4, prompting Great Britain, Belgium's ally, to declare war against Germany. For the most part, the people of Europe greeted the outbreak of war with jubilation. Most patriotically assumed that their country would be victorious within months.
Italy declared neutrality.
Four days after Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Germany and Russia declare war against each other, France orders a general mobilization, and the first German army units cross into Luxembourg in preparation for the German invasion of France. During the next three days, Russia, France, Belgium, and Great Britain all lined up against Austria-Hungary and Germany, and the German army invaded Belgium. The "Great War" that ensued was one of unprecedented destruction and loss of life, resulting in the deaths of some 20 million soldiers and civilians.
Of the initial belligerents, Germany was most prepared for the outbreak of hostilities, and its military leaders had formatted a sophisticated military strategy known as the "Schlieffen Plan," which envisioned the conquest of France through a great arcing offensive through Belgium and into northern France. Russia, slow to mobilize, was to be kept occupied by Austro-Hungarian forces while Germany attacked France. The Schlieffen Plan was nearly successful, but in early September the French rallied and halted the German advance at the bloody Battle of the Marne near Paris.
Though the Germans enjoyed greater success on the Eastern Front, the conflict’s first major battle along the Marne effectively decided the course of the war on the Western Front. World War I would be a terrible war of attrition, won by whichever side was willing to commit the greater number of men and resources to the lethal trenches.
By the end of 1914, well over a million soldiers of various nationalities had been killed on the battlefields of Europe, and neither for the Allies nor the Central Powers was a final victory in sight. On the western front the battle line that stretched across northern France and Belgium the combatants settled down in the trenches for a terrible war of attrition. In 1915, the Allies attempted to break the stalemate with an amphibious invasion of Turkey, which had joined the Central Powers in October 1914, but after heavy bloodshed the Allies were forced to retreat in early 1916.
The year 1916 saw great offensives by Germany and Britain along the western front, but neither side accomplished a decisive victory. In the east, Germany was more successful, and the disorganized Russian army suffered terrible losses, spurring the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917. By the end of 1917, the Bolsheviks had seized power in Russia and immediately set about negotiating peace with Germany. In 1918, the infusion of American troops and resources into the western front finally tipped the scale in the Allies' favor. Bereft of manpower and supplies and faced with an imminent invasion, Germany signed an armistice agreement with the Allies in November 1918.
World War I was known as the "war to end all wars" because of the great slaughter and destruction it caused. Unfortunately, the peace treaty that officially ended the conflict the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 forced punitive terms on Germany that destabilized Europe and laid the groundwork for World War II.
Alemania declara la guerra a Rusia, invade Luxemburgo y presenta un ultimátum a Bélgica. Francia ordena la movilización general.
1907 Bank of Italy opens 1st branch at 3433 Mission Street, SF.
1903 First cross-country auto trip, from New York City to San Francisco, is completed on this day. The trail was blazed by a Packard, which finished in a mere fifty-two days.
1900 El médico cubano Carlos Finlay hace público su descubrimiento del mosquito propagador de la fiebre amarilla.
1896 George Samuelson completes rowing the Atlantic (NY to England)
1893 A machine for making shredded wheat breakfast cereal is patented.
1880 Sir Frederick Roberts frees the British Afghanistan garrison of Kandahar from Afghan rebels.
1876 Colorado becomes 38th state of US.
1873 Inventor Andrew S. Hallidie successfully tests a cable car he had designed for the city of San Francisco. The cable cars would be operated by Hallidie's Clay Street Hill Railroad Company.
1872 The first long-distance gas pipeline in the US is completed. Designed for natural gas, the two-inch pipe ran 8 km from Newton Wells to Titusville, Pennsylvania.
1868 Rusia vende Alaska a los Estados Unidos. [fecha???]
1867 Blacks vote for 1st time in a state election in South (Tenn)
1863 Federal cavalry advance from Witteburg on a campaign to capture Little Rock, Arkansas
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1861 Captain John Baylor claims most of the territories of Arizona and New Mexico for the Confederacy after he routs a Union force at Fort Fillmore in southern New Mexico.
1861 Brazil recognizes Confederate States of America.
1838 Emancipation of British slaves on Bahamas
1834 Slavery abolished in British empire Abolición de la esclavitud en todos los territorios dependientes de Gran Bretaña.
1801 The US schooner Enterprise captures the Barbary cruiser Tripoli.
1798 14 thermidor an VI La flotte française est détruite par Nelson dans la rade d’Aboukir. Battle of the Nile at Abu Qir Bay, near Alexandria, Egypt: Admiral Horatio Nelson routs the French fleet; Napoléon and his army are stranded in Egypt.
1794 14 thermidor an II La Convention suspend le Tribunal révolutionnaire et Fouquier est arrêté. C'est la fin de la Terreur.
1794 Whiskey Rebellion begins.
1791 Largest private emancipation in US history: Robert Carter III, a Virginia plantation owner, frees all 500 of his slaves.
1790 The first enumeration by the US Census Bureau is completed. It shows a population of 3'939'326 located in 16 states and the Ohio territory. Virginia is the most populous state with 747'610 inhabitants. The census compilation cost $44,377.
1789 US’s First Tarriff Legislation Already mindful of the markets, the freshly formed United States Government wheeled into action in 1789, passing the nation’s first tariff legislation. The tariff was designed to protect America’s burgeoning interests in foreign trade.
1774 Oxygen is isolated from air by chemist Carl Wilhelm and scientist Joseph Priestly.
1772 Primer desmembramiento y reparto de Polonia, en provecho de Prusia, Rusia y Austria.
1759 Battle of Minden, Germany: British and Hanoverian armies defeat the French.
1740 Thomas Arne's song "Rule Britannia" is performed for the first time.
1704 Guerra de Sucesión española: La escuadra anglo-holandesa, mandada por el contraalmirante Rooke, comienza el asedio de Gibraltar.
1689 James II's 15-week siege of Londonderry, Ireland, ends in failure.
1664 The Turkish army is defeated by French and German troops at St. Gotthard, Hungary.
1619 The first Blacks (20) in British American colonies land at Jamestown, Virginia.
|1498 Columbus lands in South
Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sets foot on the American mainland for the first time, at the Paria Peninsula in present-day Venezuela. Thinking it an island, he christened it Isla Santa and claimed it for Spain.
Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy, in 1451. Little is known of his early life, but he worked as a seaman and then a sailing entrepreneur. He became obsessed with the possibility of pioneering a western sea route to Cathay (China), India, and the fabled gold and spice islands of Asia. At the time, Europeans knew no direct sea route to southern Asia, and the route via Egypt and the Red Sea was closed to Europeans by the Ottoman Empire, as were many land routes. Contrary to popular legend, educated Europeans of Columbus' day did believe that the world was round, as argued by St. Isidore in the seventh century.
However, Columbus, and most others, underestimated the world's size, calculating that East Asia must lie approximately where North America sits on the globe (they did not yet know that the Pacific Ocean existed). With only the Atlantic Ocean, he thought, lying between Europe and the riches of the East Indies, Columbus met with King John II of Portugal and tried to persuade him to back his "Enterprise of the Indies," as he called his plan. He was rebuffed and went to Spain, where King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella also rejected him at least twice. However, after the Spanish conquest of the Moorish kingdom of Granada in January 1492, the Spanish monarchs, flush with victory, agreed to support his voyage.
On 03 01 August492, Columbus set sail from Palos, Spain, with three small ships, the Santa María, the Pinta, and the Niña. On 12 October the expedition sighted land, probably Watling Island in the Bahamas, and went ashore the same day, claiming it for Spain. Later that month, Columbus sighted Cuba, which he thought was mainland China, and in December the expedition landed on Hispaniola, which Columbus thought might be Japan. He established a small colony there with 39 of his men.
The explorer returned to Spain with gold, spices, and "Indian" captives in March 1493 and was received with the highest honors by the Spanish court. He was given the title "admiral of the ocean sea," and a second expedition was promptly organized. He was the first European to explore the Americas since the Vikings set up colonies in Greenland and Newfoundland in the 10th century. Fitted out with a large fleet of 17 ships with 1500 colonists aboard, Columbus set out from Cádiz in September 1493 on his second voyage to the New World. Landfall was made in the Lesser Antilles in November. Returning to Hispaniola, he found the men he left there slaughtered by the natives, and he founded a second colony. Sailing on, he explored Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and numerous smaller islands in the Caribbean. Columbus returned to Spain in June 1496 and was greeted less warmly, as the yield from the second voyage had fallen well short of its costs. Isabella and Ferdinand, still greedy for the riches of the East, agreed to a smaller third voyage and instructed Columbus to find a strait to India.
In May 1498, Columbus left Spain with six ships, three filled with colonists and three with provisions for the colony on Hispaniola. This time, he made landfall on Trinidad. He entered the Gulf of Paria in Venezuela and planted the Spanish flag in South America on 01 01 August498. He explored the Orinoco River of Venezuela and, given its scope, soon realized he had stumbled upon another continent. Columbus, a deeply religious man, decided after careful thought that Venezuela was the outer regions of the Garden of Eden. Returning to Hispaniola, he found that conditions on the island had deteriorated under the rule of his brothers, Diego and Bartholomew. Columbus' efforts to restore order were marked by brutality, and his rule came to be deeply resented by both the colonists and the native Taino chiefs.
In 1500, Spanish chief justice Francisco de Bobadilla arrived at Hispaniola, sent by Isabella and Ferdinand to investigate complaints, and Columbus and his brothers were sent back to Spain in chains. He was immediately released upon his return, and Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to finance a fourth voyage, in which he was to search for the earthly paradise and the realms of gold said to lie nearby. He was also to continue looking for a passage to India. In May 1502, Columbus left Cádiz on his fourth and final voyage to the New World. After returning to Hispaniola, against his patrons' wishes, he explored the coast of Central America looking for a strait and for gold. Attempting to return to Hispaniola, his ships, in poor condition, had to be beached on Jamaica. Columbus and his men were marooned, but two of his captains succeed in canoeing the 720 km to Hispaniola. Columbus was a castaway on Jamaica for a year before a rescue ship arrived.
In November 1504, Columbus returned to Spain. Queen Isabella, his chief patron, died less than three weeks later. Although Columbus enjoyed substantial revenue from Hispaniola gold during the last years of his life, he repeatedly attempted (unsuccessfully) to gain an audience with King Ferdinand, whom he felt owed him further redress. Columbus died in Valladolid on 20 May 1506, without realizing the great scope of his achievement: He had discovered for Europe the New World, whose riches over the next century would help make Spain the wealthiest and most powerful nation on earth.
1464 Piero de Medici succeeds his father, Cosimo, as
ruler of Florence.
1291 Everlasting League forms, basis of Swiss Confederation (Nat'l Day) Fundación de la Confederación Suiza con la unión de los hombres de Uri, los de la comunidad libre del valle de Schwyz y los de la asociación de Nidwalden, fecha que los suizos conmemoran como su fiesta nacional.
1096 The crusaders under Peter the Hermit reach Constantinople.
0939 Las tropas del leonés Ramiro II vencen a las andalusíes de Abd al-Rahman III en la Batalla de Simancas.
0902 The Aghlabid rulers of Ifriqiyah (modern day Tunisia) capture Taormina, Sicily.
which occurred on an August 01: ^top^|
2002 Roy Ratliff, 37 [photo >], shot twice in the head by sheriff's deputies, at 13:00, near Lake Isabella, California. At 01:00, 160 km from there, in the Quartz Hill area outside Lancaster, California, Ratliff, at gunpoint, had forced Tamara Brooks, 16, out of the parked Ford Bronco of Eric Joshua Brown (born 01 August 1984), with whom she was on a date. Ratliff blindfolded Brown, bound him with duct tape, and tied him to a post. Then he did the same thing with Jacqueline Marris, 17, and her date, Frank Melero Jr., 19, who were parked in a pickup truck nearby (tying Melero to his seat in the pickup). Then Ratliff abandoned the Saturn which he had stolen at gunpoint on 18 July in Las Vegas from Roberta Young, 64, and her husband James Young, 69, and took of with the two kidnapped girls in the Bronco. When the Bronco is spotted off the road in the desert near Lake Isabella, deputies shoot at Ratliff and rescue the two girls, which he had raped and probably was about to kill. Ratliff had a criminal record dating to the 1980s in Nebraska and California that included prison for theft, burglary and possession of methamphetamines. He disappeared after his parole in July 2001. He was charged in October 2001 with raping a 19-year-old relative but was never apprehended.
2002 Shani Ladani, 27, Israeli man tied up and shot in the head in the morning. A resident of the Olesh moshav in the Sharon area, Ladani was taken from his place of work, a factory in the Gshuri industrial zone, at the 1967 Green Line on the Israeli side. Most of the workers at his factory are Palestinians from Tul Karm and surrounding villages.
2001 Mohammed Sharabati, 35, Palestinian shot by Israelis in Hebron, West Bank..
2001 Nazem Abu Gharbieh, 47, from Ramallah, and Ahmed Shawkat Salah, 40, from al-Khader, Palestinians suspected of collaboration with Israel, shot by Palestinians from the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigade.
1996 Pierre Claverie, évêque catholique d'Oran, et son chauffeur algérien, dans un attentat à la bombe commis au domicile de l'évêque.
1982 Unas 120 personas en un fallido golpe de Estado en Kenia. Son detenidas más de 3000 personas.
1981 Álvaro de Laiglesia, escritor español, director de La Codorniz.
1969 Miguel Labordeta, poeta español
1917 Enrique Prat de la Riba, político catalán.
1894 Hugo Frederik Salmson, Swedish artist born on 07 July 1843 or 1844.
1893 Alessandro La Volpe, Italian artist born in 1820.
1882 Henry Kendall, 43, Australian poet, of tuberculosis KENDALL ONLINE: Leaves From Australian Forests Poems and Songs: 1862 The Poems of Henry Kendall Songs From the Mountains
1857 Charles Turner, presumably British artist, born in 1773. Not to be confused with THE Joseph Mallord William Turner [1775-1851] LINKS
1790 Jacob van Lint, Flemish artist born on 08 February 1723.
1494 Giovanni Santi, mediocre Urbino painter and poet at the court of art patron prince Frederico da Montefeltre. Giovanni Santi was born in 1435. His main claim to fame is that he was the father of Raffaello Santi THE Raphael [06 Apr 1483 06 Apr 1520].
| Births which occurred on
an August 01: ^top^
1981 The rock music cable TV channel MTV makes its debut.
1941 Ronald Brown, in Washington, raised in Harlem, (US Secretary of Commerce [Clinton Administration]; Democratic National Committee chairman: 1st African-American to head a major US political party. Died on April 3, 1996, in a plane crash over Croatia
1937 Alfonse D'Amato Brooklyn NY, (Sen-R-NY 1980- )
1936 Yves Saint-Laurent fashion designer (Opium, Obsession)
1931 Tom Wilson, cartoonist ("Ziggy").
1926 Leopoldo Sucre Figarella, político venezolano.
1924 Georges Charpak, francés, Premio Nobel de Física.
1898 El Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, se inaugura con Pedro Madrazo como director, en el Palacio de Bibliotecas y Museos de la calle Recoletos de Madrid, lo que actualmente es la Biblioteca Nacional de España.
1875 Julio Herrera y Reissig, poeta uruguayo.
1863 Gaston Doumergue, estadista francés.
1865 Prince Napoleon Nikolaus Eugen, Swedish artist who died on 17 01 August947.
1861 Ivar Bendixson, mathematician.
1856 Daniel Hernández, Peruvian artist who died in 1932.
1854 Walter Launt Palmer, US painter who died on 16 April 1932. LINKS
1843 Robert Todd Lincoln (son of US President Abraham Lincoln; would be rescued from train accident by Edwin Booth, brother of man who assassinated President Lincoln)
1837 José María Galván y Candela, pintor y grabador español.
1744 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck believed in inheritance of acquired traits.
1714 Richard Wilson, Welsh Romantic painter, specialized in Landscapes, who died on 15 May 1782. LINKS Lake Albano and Castel Gandolfo The Mawddach Valley and Cader Idris Solitude Francesco Zuccarelli
1495 Jan van Scorel, Dutch painter who died on 06 December 1562. MORE ON VAN SCOREL AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS Joris van Egmond, Bishop of Utrecht Landscape with Bathsheba Portrait of a Man Mary Magdalen _ Mary Magdalen
0126 Publius Helvius Pertinax Roman emperor (193 AD)
10 -BC- Claudius 4th Roman emperor (41-54 AD)