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On an August 05:
2002 Before the opening of the New York Stock Exchange, auto parts manufacturer Collins & Aikman Corporation (CKC) announces a loss of $0.29 per share (on 70.4 million shares) for the quarter ended on 30 June 2002, due to the repurchase of preferred stock. CKC opens at it low for the day $2.00, down from its previous close of $5.52, then, after a webcast by the company, reaches an intraday high of $3.10 and closes at $2.81. CKC had traded as high as $28.36 as recently as 15 May 2002.
[5~year price chart >]
2002 In Los Angeles at 07:53 Maria Teresa and Maria de Jesus Quiej-Alvarez are wheeled into an operating room for the 24-hour operation to separate them. They are Guatemalan twins born on 25 July 2001 conjoined at the top of the skull and facing opposite directions. They share bone and blood vessels, but their brains are not meshed. The riskiest part of the surgery is to separate the veins that connect the front of each girl's head to the back of the other. If doctors cannot reroute the flow of blood to the brain of each twin, either could be at risk of stroke. Healing the Children arranged to bring the sisters to Los Angeles. The UCLA Medical Center physicians are donating their skills, but the bill for hospitalization and use of equipment is still expected to top $1.5 million.
2001 (5761 av 16) Israel's high-priority hit list.      ^top^
      Israel releases `hit list' to pressure Palestinian Authority (PA). More likely it will increase the stature of those on the list among Palestinians.
      The Israeli defense establishment publishes a list of seven Palestinian terrorists, six of which the PA has refused to arrest, despite Israel's requests.
      The publication of the list followed the previous day's assassination of Omar Mansour Hassan al-Madiri, a Hamas activist from Tul Karm.
      The list, issued as an Israeli Defense Ministry press release, is apparently a public relations exercise to show that Israel attempts to kill terrorists only when all other methods, including cooperation with the PA, have failed. The statement does not spell out any action Israel might take against the seven should the PA continue to ignore requests to arrest them — it merely state the seven are continuing to launch terrorist strikes out of Palestinian territory and are not being arrested.
      Israel has often used the Palestinians' refusal to arrest wanted terrorists as justification for killing them. The statement was also meant to deter the men on the list and even force them to go underground.
      Although Israel has asked the PA to arrest scores of terrorists, only the following seven appeared on the list:
      Raad Mohammed Raif Karmi, 27, of Tul Karm. Karmi, a Fatah activist, was involved in killing two restaurateurs from Tel Aviv in Tul Karm in January. Israel has repeatedly requested his arrest since the Tenet cease-fire agreement was signed on 13 June 2001. He is thought to have been involved in the murder of two other Israelis, Doron Zisserman and Danny Yehuda, since the cease-fire was declared.
      Thabet Azami Suleiman Mardawi, 25. An Islamic Jihad activist from a village near Jenin, Mardawi was involved in both the suicide bombing in Hadera on 25 May and the bombing in Binyamina on July 16. Two people were killed and 53 wounded in these attacks.
      Mahmoud Ahmed Tualba, 22. Another Islamic Jihad activist from near Jenin, also involved in the Hadera and Binyamina bombings. In addition, he was involved in two failed suicide bombings in Afula and Haifa. The PA is currently holding him in "protective custody," but Israel says this has not stopped him from organizing attacks.
      Kamel Najib Abu-Wa'ar, 27, from the Balata refugee camp near Nablus. Abu-Wa'ar, a Fatah and Force 17 activist, has been involved in several shooting attacks, including the murder of a settler near Itamar on 08 May.
      Ahad Yussuf Olama, 33, of Ramallah. A senior PFLP activist in the West Bank, he was involved in two car bombings in Jerusalem in February and March. Five people were injured in the former.
      Mussa Mohammed Kulab, 30, of Khan Yunis. A Hamas activist, Kulab has been involved in many mortar attacks in Gaza.
      Nabil Hassan Srihi, 26, from the Gaza Strip. An Islamic Jihad activist who was involved in two suicide bombings.
2001 Germans Georg Taubmann, Margrit Stebnar, Kati Jelinek and Silke Duerrkopf; and Australians Peter Bunch and Diana Thomas, aid workers with Shelter Now International in Afghanistan, are arrested by the Taliban's Ministry for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice for the capital crime of preaching Christianity. Two days earlier Dana Curry and Heather Mercer, US nationals aid workers with Shelter Now International were arrested for the same reason. Sixteen Afghan staff workers for Shelter Now are also arrested, for the capital crime of not informing on the foreigners. 59 Afghan children are taken into custody, to re-educate them in Islam. The eight foreign aid workers would be taken away from Kabul, under atrocious conditions, by the fleeing Taliban on 13 November 2001 and rescued in Ghazni on 14 November by a local uprising against the Taliban.
2000 President Clinton vetoes a Republican-sponsored tax cut for married couples, describing it as "the first installment of a fiscally reckless tax strategy."
1998 Amazon buys PlanetAll, a software company producing Internet address books and schedules. At the same time, the online bookseller purchases comparison-shopping search-engine Junglee.
1996 A jury in San Jose, California, recommends the death penalty for Richard Allen Davis, convicted of the 01 October 1993 kidnapping and murder of Polly Klaas, 12, of Petaluma.
1993 The Times Mirror Co., owner of the Los Angeles Times, New York Newsday, and other newspapers, makes a deal with Prodigy Services to provide online newspapers to newspaper subscribers. The service would also provide access to bulletin boards, archives of past articles, restaurant reviews, and sports scores.
1991 Democratic congressional leaders start an investigation into whether the 1980 Reagan-Bush campaign had secretly conspired with Iran to delay release of American hostages until after the presidential election. (A task force later would conclude incredibly that there was "no credible evidence" of such a deal.) [Did they find evidence that was incredible, but true?]
1989 Attempted bombing of the USIS Binational Center in Santiago, Chile.
1983 Figures are released showing that the unemployment rate in the US is down to 9.5% from the 10% of the July figures
1974 Vietnam: US Congress cuts military aid to South Vietnam      ^top^
      Congress places a $1 billion ceiling on military aid to South Vietnam for fiscal year 1974. This figure was trimmed further to $700 million by August 11. Military aid to South Vietnam in fiscal year 1973 was $2.8 billion; in 1975 it would be cut to $300 million. Once aid was cut, it took the North Vietnamese only 55 days to defeat the South Vietnamese forces when they launched their final offensive in 1975.
1974 President Richard Nixon admits he ordered a cover-up for political as well as national security reasons.
1988 Mario Biaggi (Rep-D-NY) convicted of racketeering resigns seat
1986 It's revealed that Andrew Wyeth (born on 12 July 1917) has secretly made 240 drawings and paintings of his neighbor Helga Testorf. — MORE ON WYETH'S SECRET AT ART “4” AUGUSTLINKSChristina's World (with link to an exclusive showing what happened to it, moments after the scene painted by Wyeth :-) Albert's SonPage BoyDistant ThunderChill WindAutumnMemorial DayBraids (of Helga) — Winter, 1946Wind from the SeaAnna ChristinaChristina's TeapotAlvaro & ChristinaThe Wood Stove (detail)The Coot HunterSheepskin
1985 Flexible-wing glider altitude record (65'300 m) is set by Larry Tudor.
1981 Reagan fires 11'359 striking air-traffic controllers      ^top^
     US President Ronald Reagan begins firing 11'359 air-traffic controllers striking in violation of his order for them to return to work. The executive action, regarded as extreme by many, significantly slowed air travel for months. Two days earlier, on 03 August, almost 13'000 air-traffic controllers went on strike after negotiations with the federal government to raise their pay and shorten their workweek proved fruitless. The controllers complained of difficult working conditions and a lack of recognition of the pressures they face. Across the country, some 7'000 flights were canceled. The same day, President Reagan called the strike illegal and threatened to fire any controller who had not returned to work within 48 hours. Robert Poli, president of the Professional Air-Traffic Controllers Association (PATCO), was found in contempt by a federal judge and ordered to pay $1000 a day in fines. On 05 August, an angry President Reagan carried out his threat, and the federal government began firing the 11'359 air-traffic controllers who had not returned to work. In addition, he declared a lifetime ban on the rehiring of the strikers by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). On 17 August, the FAA began accepting applications for new air-traffic controllers, and on 22 October the Federal Labor Relations Authority decertified PATCO.
1966 Martin Luther King Jr. is stoned (they threw stones at him; he was sober) during Chicago march
1964 Vietnam: US Navy flies retaliatory strikes against North Vietnam      ^top^
      F-8 Crusaders, A-1 Skyraiders, and A-4 Skyhawks, from the carriers USS Ticonderoga and USS Constellation stationed in the South China Sea, fly 64 sorties against North Vietnamese coastal targets as part of Operation Pierce Arrow in retaliation for the Tonkin Gulf incidents of 02 August and 04 August. The US warplanes destroyed or damaged 25 North Vietnamese PT boats (claimed by US officials to be about one-half of the North Vietnamese Navy) at bases at Hon Gai, Loc Ghao, Phuc Loi, and Quang Khe; destroyed seven anti-aircraft installations at Vinh; and severely damaged an oil storage depot at Phuc Loi. Two US planes were shot down. One pilot, Lieutenant j.g. ("junior grade") Everett Alvarez, parachuted to safety, but broke his back in the process and was taken prisoner by the North Vietnamese. He was the first of some 600 US airmen who would be captured during the war and not released until the cease-fire agreement was signed in 1973.
1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty signed by USSR, US, and UK.      ^top^
      Representatives of the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain sign the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited the testing of nuclear weapons in outer space, underwater, or in the atmosphere. The treaty was hailed as an important first step toward the control of nuclear weapons. Discussions between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning a ban on nuclear testing began in the mid-1950s. Officials from both nations came to believe that the nuclear arms race was reaching a dangerous level. In addition, public protest against the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons was gaining strength. Nevertheless, talks between the two nations (later joined by Great Britain) dragged on for years, usually collapsing when the issue of verification was raised. The Americans and British wanted on-site inspections, something the Soviets vehemently opposed. In 1960, the three sides seemed close to an agreement, but the downing of an American spy plan over the Soviet Union in May brought negotiations to an end.
      The Cuban Missile Crisis provided a major impetus for reinvigorating the talks in October 1962. The Soviets attempted to install nuclear-capable missiles in Cuba, bringing the Soviet Union and the United States to the brink of a nuclear war. Cooler heads prevailed and the crisis passed, but the other possible scenarios were not lost on US and Russian officials. In June 1963, the test ban negotiations resumed, with compromises from all sides. On 05 August British, American, and Russian representatives signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. France and China were asked to join the agreement but refused. The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was a small but significant step toward the control of nuclear weapons. In the years to come, discussions between the United States and the Soviet Union grew to include limits on many nuclear weapons and the elimination of others.
1963 Craig Breedlove sets world auto speed record at 407.45 MPH
1962 Nelson Mandela arrested for incitement and illegally leaving S Africa.
1961 48ºC, Ice Harbor Dam, Washington (state record)
1960 Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) gains independence from France
1953 POW exchange begins in Korea      ^top^
      Nine days after the Korean War armistice was signed at Panmunjom, "Operation Big Switch," the final exchange of prisoners of war, begins along the 38th parallel. By the conclusion of the operation, some 13'000 UN soldiers, including 3600 Americans, would be back safely in South Korea. During the same month, over 75'000 Communist prisoners, mostly of North Koreans and Chinese, would cross into the North.
      In the aftermath of World War II, foreign ministers from the former Allied nations of the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain agreed to divide Korea into two separate occupation zones and govern the nation for five years. The country was split along the thirty-eighth parallel, with Soviet forces occupying the northern zone, and Americans stationed in the south.
      Although the border was defended on both sides, the South Koreans were unprepared for the hordes of North Korean troops and Soviet-made tanks that rolled across the thirty-eighth parallel on 25 June 1950. At dawn that day, nearly 100'000 Communist troops of the North Korean People's Army swept across the thirty-eighth parallel, catching the Republic of Korea forces completely off guard and throwing them into a hasty southern retreat.
      When word of the attack reached Washington, US President Harry S. Truman ordered additional US forces to Korea, and, on 27 June, he announced to the nation and the world that America would intervene in order to stem the spread of communism. The next day, the UN Security Council met, and, in the absence of the Soviet Union, which was boycotting the council, a resolution was passed approving the use of force against North Korea.
      On 30 June 1950, Truman authorized the use of US ground forces in Korea, and on 07 July, the Security Council recommended that all UN forces sent to Korea be put under US command. The next day, General Douglas MacArthur was named commander of all UN forces in Korea. In the opening months of the war, the US-led UN forces rapidly advanced against the North Koreans, but in October, Chinese Communist troops entered the fray, throwing the Allies into a general retreat.
      On 27 July 1953, a peace agreement was signed, ending the war and reestablishing the 1945 division of Korea that still exists today. American casualties in the Korean War included 170'000 killed, wounded, or missing in action.
1951 The United Nations Command suspends armistice talks with the North Koreans when armed troops are spotted in neutral areas.
1947 Ferdinand Porsche is released from a French prison. He had been arrested as a suspected Nazi collaborator by United States and French occupation authorities in the aftermath of World War II and held in custody for two years. He would live to see his seventy-fifth birthday.
1944 Hundreds of Jews are freed from forced labor     ^top^
      Polish insurgents liberate a German forced-labor camp in Warsaw, freeing 348 Jewish prisoners, who join in a general uprising against the German occupiers of the city. As the Red Army advanced on Warsaw in July, Polish patriots, still loyal to their government-in-exile back in London, prepared to overthrow their German occupiers.
      On 29 July, the Polish Home Army (underground), the People's Army (a communist guerilla movement), and armed civilians took back two-thirds of Warsaw from the Germans. On 04 August, the Germans counterattacked, mowing down Polish civilians with machine-gun fire. By 05 August more than 15'000 Poles were dead. The Polish command cried to the Allies for help. Churchill telegraphed Stalin, informing him that the British intended to drop ammunition and other supplies into the southwest quarter of Warsaw to aid the insurgents. The prime minister asked Stalin to aid in the insurgents' cause.
      Stalin balked, claiming the insurgency was too insignificant to waste time with. Britain succeeded to getting some aid to the Polish patriots, but the Germans also succeeded-in dropping incendiary bombs. The Poles fought on, and on 05 August they freed Jewish forced laborers who then joined in the battle, some of whom formed a special platoon dedicated solely to repairing captured German tanks for use in the struggle. The Poles would battle on for weeks against German reinforcements, and without Soviet help, as Joseph Stalin had his own plans for Poland which called for the elimination of the non-communist leadership.
1941 The German army completes taking 410'000 Russian prisoners in Uman and Smolensk pockets in the Soviet Union.
1926 Houdini stays in a coffin under water for 1+ hrs.
1921 Mustapha Kemal is appointed virtual ruler of the Ottoman Empire.
1916 The British navy defeats the Ottomans at the naval battle off Port Said, Egypt.
1915 The Austro-German Army takes Warsaw, in present-day Poland, on the Eastern Front.
1914 The British Expeditionary Force mobilizes for World War I.
1914 US, Nicaragua sign treaty granting canal rights to US
1914 First stop-and-go lights      ^top^
      The first traffic light was installed at the intersection of Euclid Avenue and East 105th Street in Cleveland. Early roads, shared by horses, cars, and streetcars, were chaotic. As accidents and traffic increased it became apparent that some rules of the road were required. The traffic light was only one of several improvements to arrive in this period — the traffic island was introduced in 1907, dividing lines appeared in 1911, and the “No left turn” sign debuted in 1916.
1892 Harriet Tubman receives a pension from Congress for her work as a nurse, spy and scout during the Civil War.
1884 Statue of Liberty cornerstone laid      ^top^
      On Bedloe's Island in New York harbor, the cornerstone of the pedestal for the Statue of Liberty, a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States, is laid.
      Originally known as "Liberty Enlightening the World," the Statue of Liberty was first proposed by French historian Edouard Laboulaye to commemorate the Franco-American alliance during the American Revolution. Designed by French sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, the 152-foot statue was the form of a woman with an uplifted arm holding a torch. On February 22, 1877, the anniversary of George Washington's birthday, Congress approved the use of a site on New York Bedloe's Island suggested by Bartholdi. In May of 1884, the statue was completed in France, and three months later, the Americans laid the cornerstone for its pedestal in New York. On June 19, 1885, the dismantled Statue of Liberty arrived to the New World, enclosed in over two-hundred packing cases. Its copper sheets were reassembled and the last rivet of the monument was driven in on October 28, 1886, during a dedication ceremony attended by US President Grover Cleveland.
      On the pedestal is inscribed "The New Colossus," a famous sonnet by American poet Emma Lazarus that welcomes immigrants to the United States with: "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, / The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. / Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me. / I lift my lamp beside the golden door." [sentiments all too rarely shared by the majority of those already comfortably installed in the US]
      Six years later, Ellis Island, adjacent to Bedloe's Island, opened as the chief entry station for immigrants to the United States, and for the next thirty-two years, more than twelve million immigrants were welcomed into New York harbor by "Lady Liberty." In 1924, the Statue of Liberty was made a national monument.
1864 Union Navy wins Battle of Mobile Bay      ^top^
      Union Admiral David Farragut leads his flotilla through the Confederate defenses at Mobile, Alabama, to seal one of the last major Southern ports. The fall of Mobile Bay was a huge blow to the Confederacy, and the victory was the first in a series of successes that secured the reelection of Abraham Lincoln in 1864. Mobile became the major Confederate port on the Gulf of Mexico after the fall of New Orleans, Louisiana, in April 1862. With blockade runners carrying critical supplies from Havana, Cuba, into Mobile, Union General Ulysses S. Grant made the capture of the port a top priority after assuming command of all Federal forces in early 1864. Opposing Farragut's force of 17 warships was a Rebel squadron of only four ships; but it included the C.S.S. Tennessee, said to be the most powerful ironclad afloat. Farragut also had to contend with two powerful Confederate batteries inside of Forts Morgan and Gaines. On the morning of 05 August Farragut's force steamed into the mouth of Mobile Bay in two columns led by four ironclads and met a devastating fire that immediately sank one of Farragut's wooden frigates, the USS. Tecumseh.
      The rest of the fleet fell into confusion but Farragut rallied them with the words, “Damn the torpedoes. Full speed ahead!” Although the authenticity of the quote is questionable, it nevertheless became one of the most famous in history. The Yankee fleet quickly knocked out the smaller Confederate ships, but the Tennessee fought a valiant battle against overwhelming odds before it sustained heavy damage and surrendered. The Union laid siege to Forts Morgan and Gaines, and both were captured within two weeks. Confederate forces remained in control of the city of Mobile, but the port was no longer available to blockade runners. The Battle of Mobile Bay lifted the morale of the North. With Grant stalled at Petersburg, Virginia, and General William T. Sherman unable to capture Atlanta, the capture of the bay became the first in a series of Union victories that stretched to the fall election.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1862 Battle of Baton Rouge, Louisiana In an indecisive battle on the Mississippi River, the Confederates gain some breathing room after driving a Union force back into Baton Rouge from the north.
1861 US Army abolishes flogging
1861 As part of the Revenue Act of 1861, to finance the Civil War, the US Congress adopts the nation's first income tax .(3% of incomes over $800). It was rescinded in 1872.
1858 First transatlantic telegraph cable completed      ^top^
      After several unsuccessful attempts, the first telegraph line across the Atlantic Ocean was completed, largely through the efforts of American merchant Cyrus West Field. The telegraph was first developed by Samuel F. B. Morse, an accomplished American painter who learned of a French inventor's idea of the electric telegraph in 1932. For the next twelve years, Morse worked to perfect a working telegraph instrument, and also composed Morse code, a set of signals that could represent language in telegraph messages.
      On 24 May 1844, inside the US Capitol, Morse inaugurated the world's first commercial telegraph line with a memorable message sent to a railroad station in Baltimore, Maryland: "What Hath God Wrought." Just a decade after the first line opened, over twenty thousand miles of telegraph cable crisscrossed the country. The rapid communication it made possible greatly aided American expansion, making railroad travel safer as it provided a boost to business conducted across the great distances of a growing United States. In 1854, Cyrus West Field conceived the idea of the telegraph cable, and secured a charter to lay a line across the Atlantic. Obtaining the aid of British and American naval ships, he made four unsuccessful attempts made beginning in 1857.
      In July of 1858, four British and American vessels — the Agamemnon, the Valorous, the Niagara, and the Gorgon — met in mid-ocean for the fifth attempt. On 29 July, the Niagara and the Gorgon, with their load of cable, departed for Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, while the Agamemnon the Valorous embarked for Valentia, Ireland. By 05 August the cable had been successfully laid, stretching some 3140 km across the Atlantic at a depth often of more than 3000 meters.
      On 16 August 1858, President James Buchanan and Queen Victoria would exchange formal introductory and complimentary messages. However, the cable's weak signal was insufficient for regular communication, and service ended on 01 September. Field later raised new funds and made new arrangements, and following the interruption of the American Civil War, the Great Eastern succeeded in laying the first permanent telegraph line across the Atlantic Ocean in 1866. Cyrus West Field was the object of much praise on both sides of the Atlantic for his persistence in accomplishing what many thought to be an impossible undertaking. He later promoted other oceanic cables, including telegraph lines that stretched from Hawaii to Asia and Australia.
Premier cable transatlantique: Ce câble sous marin rend possible la transmission de télégrammes entre l'Europe et les États Unis. La pose de ce câble a soulevé d'énormes difficultés. Aujourd'hui plusieurs câbles semblables relient le continent américain et l'Europe. Mais à eux tous ils ne suffisent plus à la tâche et servent de secours aux liaisons par satellites.
1846 Oregon country divided between US and Britain at 49th parallel
1815 A peace treaty with Tripoli — which follows treaties with Algeria and Tunis — brings an end to the Barbary Wars.
1772 first partition of Poland, between Austria, Prussia and Russia
1763 Colonel Henry Bouquet decisively defeats the Indians at the Battle of Bushy Run in Pennsylvania during Pontiac's rebellion.
1762 Russia, Prussia and Austria sign a treaty agreeing on the partition of Poland.
1583 Gilbert claims Newfoundland (first English colony in North America).
Deaths which occurred on an August 05:     ^top^
2002 Jason-Eric Wilson, 16, suicide by swallowing pills, in a Harlem homeless shelter. He was suffering from paranoid schizophrenia, and his family was being denied permanent shelter and food stamps for lack of documents which it had lost when evicted from the Brooklyn apartment where it had lived for 14 years.
2002 Hazel Hastings, 84, shot by her husband, George Hastings, 88, in Fort Smith, Arkansas. George then phones police at 911 to report it, then shoots himself but survives in critical condition. Hazel was a Alzheimer's patient and George has terminal cancer. He feared that she would be left without adequate care after his death.
2002 Shauna Lawrence, 26, in Chicago at 12:14, from injuries suffered on 30 July 2002 when hit by an out-of-control van, whose driver and passenger were then beaten to death by bystanders.
2002 A Palestinian suicide bomber in a premature explosion at 18:00 while he is hitching a ride with an Israeli Arab security guard on the outskirts of the Israeli Arab city of Umm al-Fahm in northern Israel.
2002 Six Pakistanis shot at Christian School in Murree, Pakistan. At 11:20 four masked men carrying sports bags take out Kalashnikov rifles and shoot dead a security guard at the entrance to the school, pulled out weapons and opened fire, killing a security guard, then another security guard, a receptionist and a bystander. When a police constable starts shooting at them, the attackers run to the other end of the school grounds, kill the cook and the carpenter who are hiding there, and escape. Two persons are wounded but none of the about 150 students (including 30 from the US), and of the mostly British teachers is hurt. On 06 August 2002, three attackers of the school blow themselves up with grenades after being stopped by police in Pakistan-controlled Kashmir and saying that other groups like them "plan to carry out similar attacks on Americans and nonbelievers, and you will soon hear about it," which does occur on 09 August 2002 when three Pakistani nurses are killed in a grenade attack outside the church of the Presbyterian hospital in Taxila, Pakistan.
2002 Avi Volanski, 29 and wife Avital Volanski, 27, and her unborn baby, Israelis, just after midnight when gunmen fire on their car on the Ramallah-Nablus road, near the West Bank enclave settlement Eli. A son, 2, is injured. Another son, 8 months, is not hurt.
2001 Tehiya Bloomberg, Israeli, shot nearAzon, east of Qalqiliya, West Bank. Five Israelis are injured. Shin Beth would arrest in December 2001 Samir Ahmad Ramadan Abu-Huniyeh, 40, from Azon, who had served in the Palestinian Authority intelligence organization headed by Tawfiq Tirawi. He would tell interrogators that he participated in the shooting with Farid Azuni, a member of the special forces of the General Intelligence in Qalqiliya.
2002 Junius Scales, the only person sent to prison under the Smith Act of 1940, which made it a felony to lead or be a member of a group that advocated the violent overthrow of the United States government. He was born on 26 March 1920, in Greensboro NC. His great-uncle, A. M. Scales, had been governor of the state. He joined the Communist Party in 1939 while he was at the University of North Carolina, saying that he saw in the party an opportunity to right the wrongs done to Blacks and poor working people. Scales rose quickly within the party to coordinate civil rights and labor organizing activities in several Southern states. Scales was arrested by the F.B.I. in Memphis in 1954. His trials went on for almost 7 years (all the way to the Supreme Court), during which he left the Communist Party, disillusioned when Khrushchev acknowledged Stalin's crimes in 1956, and when the USSR invaded freedom-seeking Hungary. He was sentenced in 1961 to 6 years in prison, of which he served 15 months before President Kennedy commuted his sentence on 24 December 1962. Aided by Richard Nickson, Scales wrote his memoir, Cause at Heart: A Former Communist Remembers (1987). Lou Lipsitz wrote a drama based on the Scales story: The Limits of Dissent.
2001 Ali al-Julani, 30, from east Jerusalem, from chest wounds received earlier in the day when Israeli soldiers and police returned fire and his car crashed into a lamppost. Al~Julani had fired with an M-16 automatic rifle at soldiers leaving the Israeli Defense Ministry building in Tel-Aviv for lunch, injuring 8 soldiers and 2 civilians.
2001 Omar Mansour Hassan al-Madiri, 26, a Hamas activist from Tul Karm, West Bank. Al-Madiri, is killed when an Israeli helicopter fires three missiles at his car at about 16::30. Three Palestinian bystanders are lightly injured. Israel says that Al-Madiri had planned a series of suicide bombings inside Israel, due to take place within the next few days. He was also involved in many previous shooting and bombing attacks, particularly in the northern West Bank. He recruited and trained suicide bombers and sent them on missions. He was twice arrested by Israel, in 1995 and 1998. Al-Madiri's car was carrying explosives destined for two suicide bombers. Hamas, however, claims that Al-Madiri was a political activist. Israeli security sources say that with Al-Madiri's death, Israel has now killed most of Hamas's key military activists in Tul Karm and Nablus.
1991 Soichiro Hondo, 84, in Tokyo. Japanese industrialist and engineer, CEO and founder of Honda Motor Company, of liver cancer.
1981 Neyman, mathematician
1980 More than 200 persons, by hurricane Allen, in the southern peninsula of Haiti.
1977 Max Kaus, German artist born on 11 March 1891.
1962 Marilyn Monroe, 36, is found dead in her home.      ^top^
      Beside her bed is an empty bottle that had contained fifty sleeping pills, leading police to determine her death a suicide. Some would doubt this conclusion, but the unknown circumstances of Marilyn Monroe's final performance only increase her mystique.
     She was discovered lying nude on her bed, face down, with a telephone in one hand. Empty bottles of pills, prescribed to treat her depression, were littered around the room. After a brief investigation, Los Angeles police concluded that her death was "caused by a self-administered overdose of sedative drugs and that the mode of death is probable suicide."
      Marilyn Monroe was born Norma Jean Mortenson in Los Angeles on 01 June 1926. Her mother was emotionally unstable and frequently confined to an asylum, so Norma Jean was reared by a succession of foster parents and in an orphanage. At the age of 16, she married a fellow worker in an aircraft factory, but they divorced a few years later. She took up modeling in 1944 and in 1946 signed a short-term contract with 20th Century Fox, taking as her screen name Marilyn Monroe. She had a few bit parts and then returned to modeling, famously posing nude for a calendar in 1949.
      She began to attract attention as an actress in 1950 after appearing in minor roles in the The Asphalt Jungle and All About Eve. Although she was onscreen only briefly playing a mistress in both films, audiences took note of the blonde bombshell, and she won a new contract from Fox. Her acting career took off in the early 1950s with performances in Love Nest (1951), Monkey Business (1952), and Niagara (1953). Celebrated for her voluptuousness and wide-eyed charm, she won international fame for her sex-symbol roles in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953), How to Marry a Millionaire (1953), and There's No Business Like Show Business (1954). The Seven-Year Itch (1955) showcased her comedic talents and features the classic scene where she stands over a subway grating and has her white skirt billowed up by the wind from a passing train. In 1954, she married baseball great Joe DiMaggio, attracting further publicity, but they divorced eight months later.
      In 1955, she studied with Lee Strasberg at the Actors Studio in New York City and subsequently gave a strong performance as a hapless entertainer in Bus Stop (1956). In 1956, she married playwright Arthur Miller. She made The Prince and the Showgirl — a critical and commercial failure — with Laurence Olivier in 1957 but in 1959 gave an acclaimed performance in the hit comedy Some Like It Hot. Her last role, in The Misfits (1961), was directed by John Huston and written by Miller, whom she divorced just one week before the film's opening.
      By 1961, Monroe, beset by depression, was under the constant care of a psychiatrist. Increasingly erratic in the last months of her life, she lived as a virtual recluse in her Brentwood, Los Angeles, home. After midnight on 05 August 1962, her maid, Eunice Murray, noticed Monroe's bedroom light on. When Murray found the door locked and Marilyn unresponsive to her calls, she called Monroe's psychiatrist, Dr. Ralph Greenson, who gained access to the room by breaking a window. Entering, he found Marilyn dead, and the police were called sometime after. An autopsy found a fatal amount of sedatives in her system, and her death was ruled probable suicide.
      In recent decades, there have been a number of conspiracy theories about her death, most of which contend that she was murdered by John and/or Robert Kennedy, with whom she allegedly had love affairs. These theories claim that the Kennedys killed her (or had her killed) because they feared she would make public their love affairs and other government secrets she was gathering. On 04 August 1962, Robert Kennedy, then attorney general in his older brother's cabinet, was in fact in Los Angeles. Two decades after the fact, Monroe's housekeeper, Eunice Murray, announced for the first time that the attorney general had visited Marilyn on the night of her death and quarreled with her, but the reliability of these and other statements made by Murray are questionable. Four decades after her death, Marilyn Monroe remains a major cultural icon. The unknown details of her final performance only add to her mystique.
      As the sale of photos, posters, and home videos indicates, Marilyn Monroe stands out as the world's most endearing and enduring sex symbol. Born Norma Jean Mortenson (01 June 1926), on the screen Marilyn was a natural comedienne, and her image remains forever young. She was married to and divorced from: James Doughtery, baseball great Joe DiMaggio, and playwright Arthur Miller. She had numerous affairs, including, not long before her death, those with John F.Kennedy and Robert Kennedy.
1961 Sir Sidney Holland , 67, PM of New Zealand (1949-57)
1953 Ira Aten, 89, one of last survivors of the Wild West.      ^top^
      Texas Ranger Ira Aten, one of the last survivors of the days of the Wild West, dies at his home in Burlingame, California. Born in 1862, Aten was among the final generation of Americans who had a chance to come of age on a wilderness frontier. Aten was introduced to the frontier at the age of 13, when his family moved to a farm near the isolated central Texas town of Round Rock. Not long after, he learned about the hard justice of the frontier when his father, a minister, provided the last rites for a mortally wounded outlaw. Aten was determined to survive in a violent world — he honed his skills with a pistol and became a crack shot with a rifle.
      At age 20, Aten joined the Texas Rangers, a band of law enforcement officers created during the Texas Revolution of 1835. He had the hazardous job of patrolling the Rio Grande River, where many bands of cattle thieves and other outlaws crossed to hide in Mexico. In May 1884, Aten and six other Rangers spotted two presumed cattle thieves near the Rio Grande. When the Rangers tried to apprehend the men, a gun battle broke out. Several of the Rangers were wounded, one fatally, but Aten was able to injure the two outlaws and take them prisoner.
      Promoted to corporal, Aten was reassigned to west central Texas, a region that was no more peaceful. In 1887, Aten confronted an outlaw named Judd Roberts. Aten shot Roberts in the hand, but the outlaw managed to escape. Two months later, Aten again wounded Roberts, but the outlaw again lived to escape. Finally, Aten caught up with Roberts, this time shooting him dead.
      In 1889, Aten left the Rangers to become sheriff of Fort Ben County, Texas. During six years as a sheriff, he continued to track down outlaws and fight more than a few gun battles. Aten always came out ahead, but eventually he began to yearn for a safer and more peaceful life. In 1895, he left law enforcement to become the superintendent of the Escarbada Division of the giant XIT Ranch. Nine years later, he finally left the wilds of Texas and settled in California with his wife and five children. He lived the remainder of his long life in relative peace and quiet. He died on this day in 1953, one of the last survivors of a vanished era.
1910 Petersen, mathematician.
1900 James Augustine Healy, 80, Black (but not noticeably) Roman Catholic bishop.
1872 Delaunay, mathematician.
1853 Olivier, mathematician.
1811 Adolf Ulrik Wertmuller, Swedish artist born on 18 February 1751. — LINKS
1757 Antoine Pesne, French painter born on 23 May 1683. — MORE ON PESNE AT ART “4” AUGUST LINKSSelf-portrait with Daughters
1676 Pierre Pater I “le bon Patel”, French artist born in 1605.
1392 Plusieurs hommes tués par Charles VI pris de folie.      ^top^
      Le roi accompagné de son ost s'engouffre dans la profonde forêt du Mans; il est partit en expédition punitive contre Pierre de Craon et son protecteur le duc de Bretagne Jean IV de Monfort (ces derniers ayant attenté à la vie du connétable Olivier de Clisson). A peine rentré dans la forêt, un vagabond surgit des buissons et lui crie de s'en retourner car il a été trahi. Remis de cet événement le roi poursuit son chemin; somnolant sur son cheval. Tout d'un coup la pointe d'une lance heurte un chapel de fer provoquant par son bruit métallique le reveil inopiné du roi. Celui çi croyant être tombé dans une embuscade frappa de son épée tout ce qui se trouvait à sa portée; plusieurs hommes furent tués. Charles VI fut enfin maîtrisé, ligoté puis ramené sur un chariot au Mans.
1391 One hundred Jews in the fire of the Barcelona ghetto, set by Castilian sailors. Four days of violence against Jews followed.
Births which occurred on an August 05:
1983 The "Baby Bells": Southwestern Bell, Unisys, Bell Atlantic, Pacific Bell, Ameritech, Bell South, US West.      ^top^
      05 August is the birthday of the divestiture of AT&T. US District Court Judge Harold Greene stamps his final approval on a plan to splinter the telecommunications giant into seven regional companies. It becomes effective on 1 January 1984. For a good spell, however, AT&T freely admitted to employing monopolistic practices, reasoning that such tactics would enable them to provide the most efficient service. In place of competition, AT&T welcomed government regulation, "provided it is independent, intelligent, considerate, thorough and just." The government largely bought into this logic, save for a 1956 consent decree which forced AT&T to limit its domain to the national phone system and government contracts. AT&T sailed along, withering stray anti-trust suits and the introduction of modest competition.
      However, the development of new transmission technology, as well as the rapid advancement of a little thing called the computer, prompted major changes in the government's trust-friendly philosophy. In 1974, the government brought an anti-trust suit against AT&T and, after a decade of legal wrangling, forced the phone behemoth to divest itself of companies that provided local service. While the birth of the baby Bells hardly whittled AT&T into a mom and pop shop, the ruling still took a chunk out of their mammoth operations. Their assets suddenly shrunk from $149.5 billion to $34 billion and the workforce was trimmed from 1.9 million to 373'000 employees.
1981Rachel Joy Scott, she would be one of the students massacred at Columbine High School on 990420.
1924 The comic strip Little Orphan Annie, by Harold Gray, makes its debut.
1923 Richard Kleindienst, lawyer who worked in Nixon's 1969 presidential campaign, assistant attorney general, attorney general from 12 June 1972, five days before the break-in at Democratic headquarters in the Watergate complex. Amid allegations that White House staffers were trying to obstruct justice, he resigned on 30 April 1973. Kleindienst died of lung cancer on 3 February 2000.
1908 Harold Holt PM of Australia (1966-67); supported US in Vietnam
1908 Miriam Rothschild, English scientist and writer.
1889 Conrad Aiken (Pulitzer Prize-winning poet: Selected Poems [1930]), short story writer, critic — AIKEN ONLINE: The House of Dust: A SymphonyThe House of Dust: A SymphonySenlin: A Biography
1882 The Standard Oil Company of New Jersey      ^top^
is established on this day as part of the giant Standard Oil Trust. The trust had been organized earlier in the year, bringing together John D. Rockefeller’s oil empire under one central management, run by Rockefeller and an “inner circle.” The Standard Oil Trust became the first great monopoly in American history, eventually acquiring ninety percent of the world’s oil refining capacity before it was ordered to dissolve in 1892. Rockefeller was infamous for his ruthless business tactics, and it was rumored that he often threatened to put local merchants out of business unless they bought Standard Oil.
1876 Mary Ritter Beard, American historian and writer.
1890 Joseph Carey Merrick “elephant man” (Birth Certificate) who died on 06 April 1890. He was deformed from birth, probably suffering from Proteus Syndrome.
1865 Robert Bevan, English painter who died on 08 July 1925. — LINKS
1860 Henri-Jean.Guillaume Martin, French Post-Impressionist painter who died in November 1943. — LINKSSelf-PortraitSerenity (P. Vergilius Maro, Aeneid IV) — Woman with Flowers
1858 Edmund Henry Osthaus, German-born US painter who died in 1928, specialized in Dogs.— MORE ON OSTHAUS AT ART “4” AUGUSTUntitled (Landscape With Hunting Dogs)
1858 Henry Siddons Mowbray, US painter who died in 1928. He studied under Léon Bonnat and Jean-Léon Gérôme. — MORE ON MOWBRAY AT ART “4” AUGUST LINKSThe CalendarsRose Harvest
1855 Louis-Charles Moeller, US painter who died in 1930. — LINKSAn Old VolumeThe gossips
1850 Henri-René-Albert-Guy de Maupassant , near Dieppe, France.      ^top^
      French naturalist writer of short stories and novels who is by general agreement the greatest French short-story writer.
     Maupassant began studying law in 1869 but interrupted his studies to volunteer for the army during the Franco-Prussian War. In 1871, following the war, he went to Paris. Gustave Flaubert, a good friend of Maupassant's mother, agreed to keep an eye on the young man, who was running wild in Paris. When Maupassant showed an interest in writing, Flaubert became his mentor, introducing him to the most prominent writers of the time, including Emile Zola and Henry James. In 1880, Zola edited a collection of six short stories about war. He selected an exceptional story by Maupassant called Boule de Suif, which distinguished the young writer immediately.
      Maupassant produced some 300 short stories, six novels, and several nonfiction books in 10 years. He drew on his own experiences in the army, and later the civil service, to write vivid, detailed stories about the military and bureaucracy, as well as class injustices, in a distinctly Naturalist style that influenced Zola's own writing.
     La maison Tellier (1881), a book of short stories on various subjects, is typical of Maupassant's achievement as a whole, both in his choice of themes and in his determination to present men and women objectively in the manifold aspects of life. His concern was with l'humble vérité — words which he chose as the subtitle to his novel Une Vie (1883). This book, which sympathetically treats its heroine's journey from innocent girlhood through the disillusionment of an unfortunate marriage and ends with her subsequent widowhood, records what Maupassant had observed as a child, the little dramas and daily preoccupations of ordinary people.
     Two years saw six new books of short stories: Mademoiselle Fifi (1883), Contes de la Bécasse (1883), Clair de Lune, Les Soeurs Rondoli, Yvette, and Miss Harriet (all 1884). The stories can be divided into groups: those dealing with the Franco-German War, the Norman peasantry, the bureaucracy, life on the banks of the Seine River, the emotional problems of the different social classes, and — somewhat ominously in a late story such as Le Horla (1887) — hallucination. Together, the stories present a comprehensive picture of French life from 1870 to 1890.
     Maupassant's most important full-length novels are Une vie, Bel Ami (1885), and Pierre et Jean (1888). Bel-Ami is drawn from the author's observation of the world of sharp businessmen and cynical journalists in Paris, and it is a scathing satire on a society whose members let nothing stand in the way of their ambition to get rich quick. Bel-Ami, the amiable but amoral hero of the novel, has become a standard literary personification of an ambitious opportunist. Pierre et Jean is the tale of a man's tragic jealousy of his half-brother, who is the child of their mother's adultery.
      Maupassant's later books of short stories include Toine (1886), Le Horla (1887), Le Rosier de Madame Husson (1888), and L'Inutile Beauté (1890). Four more novels also appeared: Mont-Oriol (1887), on the financing of a fashionable watering place; Pierre et Jean; Fort comme la Mort (1889); and Notre Coeur (1890).
     Maupassant contracted syphilis in his 20s, and the disease resulted in hallucinations, suicidal impulses, and insanity. He died in a Paris mental health nursing home, suffering from syphilis, on 6 July 1893, insane since 2 January 1892, when he had attempted suicide by cutting his throat.
MAUPASSANT ONLINE: (en français sauf indication):
  • Adieu (Site 1)
  • Amour (Site 2)
  • Bel Ami (Site 6)
  • Berthe (Site 1)
  • Boule de Suif (Site 4)
  • Clair de Lune (Site 2)
  • Coco (Site 1)
  • Contes choisis (Site 3)
  • Contes de la Bécasse (Site 2)
  • Découverte (Site 2)
  • Fort comme la Mort (Site 5)
  • L'Abandonné (Site 1)
  • L'Auberge (Site 1)
  • L'Aveu (Site 1)
  • L'Epave (Site 2)
  • L'Horrible (Site 1)
  • L'Inutile Beauté (Site 2)
  • L'Ivrogne (Site 1)
  • La Main (Site 1)
  • La Main gauche (Site 2)
  • La Maison Tellier (Site 2)
  • La Parure (Site 4)
  • La Peur (Site 1)
  • La Roche aux Guillemots (Site 1)
  • La Tombe (Site 1)
  • La maison Tellier - Une partie de Campagne (Site 6)
  • La parure et autres Contes parisiens (Site 2)
  • Le Bonheur (Site 4)
  • Le Bûcher (Site 1)
  • Le Champ d'Oliviers (Site 2)
  • Le Crime du Père Boniface (Site 4)
  • Le Diable (Site 1)
  • Le Garde (Site 1)
  • Le Gueux (Site 1)
  • Le Horla (Site 6)
  • Le Legs (Site 1)
  • Le Petit (Site 1)
  • Le Père (Site 4)
  • Le Retour (Site 1)
  • Le Tic (Site 1)
  • Le Trou (Site 1)
  • Les Bijoux (Site 1)
  • Les Contes du jour et de la nuit - Le Vieux (Site 6)
  • Les Idées du Colonel (Site 1)
  • Les Tombales (Site 2)
  • Lettre trouvée sur un Noyé (Site 1)
  • Malades et Médecins (Site 1)
  • Misti (Site 1)
  • Mlle Fifi (Site 2)
  • Mohammed-Fripouille (Site 1)
  • Monsieur Parent (Site 2)
  • Mont-Oriol (Site 5)
  • Mouche (Site 2)
  • Notes d'un Voyageur (Site 1)
  • Notre Coeur (Site 5)
  • Oeuvres et documents (Site 5)
  • Pierre et Jean (Site 2)
  • Promenade (Site 1)
  • Rose (Site 4)
  • Souvenir (Site 4)
  • Sur l'Eau (Site 2)
  • Un Fou? (Site 1)
  • Un Lâche (Site 1)
  • Un Parricide (Site 4)
  • Une Vendetta (Site 1)
  • Une vie (Site 6)
  • Vains Conseils (Site 1)
  • Yvette (Site 1)
  • Amour - Trois Pages du Livre d'un Chasseur (Site 1)
  • Boule de Suif (Site 2)
  • Clair de Lune (Site 3)
  • Contes choisis (Site 2)
  • Contes de la Bécasse (Site 6)
  • Fort comme la Mort (Site 2)
  • Le Horla (Site 8)
  • Le Trou (Site 2)
  • Mlle Fifi (Site 7)
  • Mont-Oriol (Site 2)
  • Pierre et Jean (Site 3)
  • Souvenirs (Site 1)

  • Boule de Suif (Site 6)
  • Le Horla (Site 2)
  • Mont-Oriol (Site 3)
  • Berthe (RTF)
  • Coco (RTF)
  • L'Abandonné (RTF)
  • L'Aveu (RTF)
  • L'Horrible (RTF)
  • L'Ivrogne (RTF)
  • La Main (RTF)
  • La Peur (RTF)
  • La Tombe (RTF)
  • Le Bûcher (RTF)
  • Le Garde (RTF)
  • Le Gueux (RTF)
  • Le Horla (PDF)
  • Le Legs (RTF)
  • Le Retour (RTF)
  • Le Tic (RTF)
  • Les Bijoux (RTF)
  • Les Idées du Colonel (RTF)
  • Lettre trouvée sur un Noyé (RTF)
  • Malades et Médecins (RTF)
  • Misti (RTF)
  • Mohammed-Fripouille (RTF)
  • Notes d'un Voyageur (RTF)
  • Promenade (RTF)
  • Souvenirs (RTF)
  • Un Fou? (RTF)
  • Un Lâche (RTF)
  • Une Vendetta (RTF)
  • Vains Conseils (RTF)
  • Yvette (RTF)

  • Bel-Ami
  • Short Stories of the Tragedy and Comedy of Life (3-volumes)
  • 1844 (24 July Julian) Ilya Yefimovich Repin, Ukrainian Realist painter who died on 29 September 1930. — MORE ON REPIN AT ART “4” AUGUST LINKSSelf-PortraitSelf-PortraitArtist Vasily PolenovArtist Arkhip KuinjiArtist Pavel TchistyakovArtist Nikolay GayArtist Ivan KramskoyArtist Vasily SurikovArtist Grigory MyasoedovMaxim GorkyAuthor Leonid AndreevAuthor Vladimir KorolemkoComposer Modest MusorgskyComposer Anton RubinsteinComposer Anton RubinsteinComposer Alexander GlazunovComposer Mikhail GlinkaComposer Nikolay Rymsky-KorsakovDmitry MendeleevThe Surgeon E. Pavlov in the Operating TheaterNadya Repina, the Artist's DaughterNadezhda Repina, the Artist's DaughterGirl with Flowers. Daughter of the ArtistDragon-Fly. Portrait of Vera Repina, the Artist's DaughterVera Repina, the Artist's DaughterAutumn Bouquet. Portrait of Vera RepinaPreparation for the ExaminationPortrait of a BoyBarge Haulers on the VolgaA Newspaper Seller in ParisA Fisher-Girl —. Ukranian GirlUkranian Girl by a FenceAn ArchdeaconRefusal from the ConfessionThe Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mahmoud IVPutting a Propagandist Under ArrestThe Revolutionary MeetingIvan the Terrible and His Son Ivan on November 16, 1581 _ detail _ closer detailSt. Nicholas Saves Three Innocents from DeathSadkoLeo TolstoyLeo Tolstoy as a Ploughman in a Field Leo Tolstoy in His Study
    1819 Arthur Fitzwilliam Tait, English US painter who died on 28 April 1905, specialized in Animals. — LINKSMaternal Solicitude
    1802 Niels Abel, mathematician.
    1624 William, in Jamestown, Virginia, first Black child born in English America.

    The Kurds in Syria are between Iraq and a hard place. [Look on a map for that other place that is hard on Kurds: we're talking Turkey here.]
    Thoughts for the day: “One can live in the shadow of an idea without grasping it.” — Elizabeth Bowen, Irish author (1899-1973).
    “Elizabeth Bowen had shadowy ideas.”
    “You can't grasp anything with your hands in your pockets.” —
    [except what's in your pocket]
    “One cannot live in the light of an idea without being illumined by it.“
    “Every shadow has a light casting it.”
    “Only in a vacuum or a uniform transparent medium does a light cast no shadows”
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