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Events, deaths, births, of AUG 10

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On a 10 August:
2002 Physician-cure-yourself department: In Hyndman (39º49'15"N 78º43'16"W), Pennsylvania, the firehouse and the volunteer firefighters' trucks and equipment suffers half-a-million dollars of damage from a fire, probably started by an electrical short. Firefighters from nearby Maryland put out the fire after 90 minutes and lend a fire truck and equipment to Hyndman.
1999 Chechnya war: Government of "Independent Islamic Dagestan" declared by forces around Shamil Basayev Newly-designated Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin promises that rebels will be crushed within two weeks At a press conference Chechen President Aslan Mashkadov denies Chechnya's involvement in Dagestan — http://www.cdi.org/issues/Europe/aug.html
1998 Cisco sues Lucent Technologies for copyright violation. In June, Lucent had sued Cisco for appropriating Lucent's technology in its networking equipment
1997 El ejército israelí realiza un bombardeo a pocos kilómetros de la frontera con Siria, lo que volverá a poner en crisis el intento de paz entre palestinos y israelíes.
1995 Netscape shares surge from $28 to $72      ^top^
      Netscape, developer of Navigator, popular web browser, goes public with what turns out to be the largest Initial Public Offering (IPO) in Wall Street history. The California-based company issued five million shares of stock, which were slated to trade at $28. By the close of the trading day, Netscape’s stock had zoomed up to $72 a share, which left the company with a market value of $1.96 billion. This for a sixteen-month-old concern, which had produced nothing but a single piece of software.
      This success wasn’t lost on other developers. In 1995, industry giant Microsoft would introduce its own browser. Since releasing Internet Explorer, Microsoft has used a barrage of advertisements, as well as questionable business tactics, to claim a good chunk of the browser market, and attract the attention of the Antitrust division of the Justice Department. Needless to say, this hasn’t been a boon to Netscape’s finances, which have flagged considerably since that golden day in the summer of ‘95. In January of 1998, the company reported losses totaling $115 million, which triggered downsizing plans as well as a bevy of takeover rumors.
1994 La escritora bangladesí Taslima Nasrin, amenazada de muerte por los fundamentalistas islámicos, abandona su país y se refugia en Suecia.
1991 Nine Buddhists were found slain at their temple outside Phoenix, Ariz. (Two teen-agers were later arrested; one pleaded guilty to murder, the other was convicted of murder.)
1991 Tallest structure in the world collapses      ^top^
      During renovation work, the Warszawa Radio mast lost its structural integrity and came crashing to the ground. Located in Konstantynow, Poland, the radio-transmitting tower was the tallest structure in the world at the time, stretching 2,120 feet into the sky. Designed by Polish architect Jan Polak, the guyed mast weighed over six-hundred tons. Its collapse on 10 August 1991, killed three people and injured twelve. With the demise of the Warszawa Radio mast, the KTHI-TV television tower near Fargo, North Dakota — built in thirty days in 1963 — regained its status as the world's tallest structure. The tower, a stayed transmitting mast, stands 2,063 feet tall.
1988 UN estimates Asia's population has reached 3 billion
1988 President Reagan signed a measure providing $20'000 payments to Japanese-Americans who were interned during World War II. 1993, Ruth Bader Ginsburg was sworn in as the second female justice on the Supreme Court.
1987 Irak ataca instalaciones petrolíferas iraníes, rompiendo así una tregua que había durado un mes.
1987 In the late stages of its record-setting bull market, the Dow Jones Industrial Average rises 48.84 points to close the day at 2635.84, its first close above 2600. A few months later the bubble would burst and the DJI drop 500 points.
1982 Se aprueba el Estatuto de Autonomía de Canarias y de Castilla-La Mancha.
1980 Mother Teresa visits the Bronx:      ^top^
      The Missionaries of Charity were founded by Roman Catholic nun Mother Teresa, who visited poor citizens in The Bronx, a borough of New York City, on 10 August 1980. In 1948, she had left her convent to establish a home for the dying in Calcutta, and in 1979, she was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. For her, reverence for God was reverence for human life. Her tireless life of service to God and humanity came to a close when she passed away in 1997.
1977 Postal employee David Berkowitz arrested in Yonkers, NY, accused of being "Son of Sam" the 44 caliber killer responsible for six slayings and seven woundings.
1973 1st BART train travels thru transbay tube to Montgomery St Station
1972 Vietnam: North Vietnamese forces attempt to cut off Saigon      ^top^
      North Vietnamese forces block Routes 1, 4, and 13, all major South Vietnamese ground supply routes to Saigon. For the next two months, Communist forces repeatedly interdicted these and other key supply routes critical to Saigon's survival in an attempt to strangle the city. This was all part of the Nguyen Hue Offensive, which had been launched in late March. In an invasion by more than 120'000 communist troops, the North Vietnamese had taken Quang Tri and lay siege to An Loc and Kontum. Despite desperate fighting on a level heretofore unseen in the war, the South Vietnamese forces, with American advisors and US tactical air support, had withstood the invasion and were preparing to retake Quang Tri. At one point, the North Vietnamese forces had been less than 60 miles from Saigon, but were stopped by the South Vietnamese forces at An Loc, on Highway 13 north of the city.
1966 Daylight meteor seen from Utah to Canada. Only known case of a meteor entering the Earth's atmosphere & leaving it again
1966 Vietnam: Marines fight bitter battle in Quang Tin Province      ^top^
      Troops of the First Battalion, Fifth Marines fight a bitter battle against NVA forces in Quang Tin province, 60 miles west of Tam Ky. In Thailand, a US-built air base is opened in Sattahib. Ultimately, there would be five major airbases and over 49'000 US military personnel in Thailand. The bases would be turned over to the Thais and the US troops withdrawn in 1973. —
1964 Publicación de la primera encíclica del Papa Pablo VI, "Ecclesiam Suam", sobre la disposición de la Iglesia Católica a dialogar con las demás iglesias no cristianas.
1962 The price of the ounce of silver reaches $1.08, highest since 1920
1961 The UK applies for membership in the European Common Market
1955 Vietnam: Diem refuses to negotiate with Communists      ^top^
      Declaring that South Vietnam is "the only legal state," Ngo Dinh Diem, Premier of the State of Vietnam, announces that he will not enter into negotiations with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) on elections as long as the Communist government remains in power in Hanoi. The elections had been scheduled for 1956 under the provisions of the Geneva Peace Accords of 1954 that brought an end to the First Indochina War. Diem reaffirmed the position laid down in his broadcast of July 6 in which he stated that South Vietnam was not bound by the Geneva Accords.
1954 The workers at the Studebaker factory in South Bend, Indiana, accept a pay cut from $20 to $12 an hour, Nevertheless the company soon went into bankrupcy.
1954 Proclamación de la independencia de Indonesia y abolición de su unión con Holanda.
1952 Sesión inaugural en Luxemburgo de la alta autoridad de la Comunidad Europea del Carbon y del Acero (CECA).
1950 US President Harry S. Truman calls the National Guard to active duty to fight in the Korean War.
1949 Truman signs National Security Bill      ^top^
     US President Harry S. Truman signs the National Security Bill, which establishes the Department of Defense. As the Cold War heated up, the Department of Defense became the cornerstone of America's military effort to contain the expansion of communism. In 1947, the National Security Act established the Cabinet-level position of secretary of defense, which oversaw a rather unwieldy umbrella military-defense agency known as the National Military Establishment. The secretary of defense, however, was just one of a number of military-related cabinet positions, including the pre-existing secretaries for the Army, Navy, and Air Force. The growing complexity of the Cold War, a war in which the mishandled application of military force could lead to a world war of cataclysmic proportions, convinced US officials that the 1947 act needed to be revised. In 1949, the National Security Bill streamlined the defense agencies of the US government. The 1949 bill replaced the National Military Establishment with the Department of Defense. The bill also removed the cabinet-level status of the secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, who would henceforth be subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. The first person to hold this position was Louis Johnson. Finally, the bill provided for the office of chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in an effort to bring to end to the inter-service bickering that had characterized the Joint Chiefs in recent years. World War II hero General Omar Bradley was appointed the first Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The National Security Bill of 1949 was the result of the realization that more coordination and efficiency were needed for America's military-defense bureaucracy, which had experienced tremendous growth during and after World War II. The Cold War was a new and dangerous kind of war for America, and the 1949 reorganization was recognition of the need for a different approach to US defense.
1945 Japan agrees to surrender      ^top^
      Just a day after the bombing of Nagasaki, Japan submits its acquiescence to the Potsdam Conference terms of unconditional surrender, as President Harry S. Truman orders a halt to atomic bombing (the third atomic bomb was not ready anyhow). Emperor Hirohito, having remained aloof from the daily decisions of prosecuting the war, rubber-stamping the decisions of his War Council, including the decision to bomb Pearl Harbor, finally felt compelled to do more. At the behest of two Cabinet members, the emperor summoned and presided over a special meeting of the Council and implored them to consider accepting the terms of the Potsdam Conference, which meant unconditional surrender. "It seems obvious that the nation is no longer able to wage war, and its ability to defend its own shores is doubtful."
      The Council had been split over the surrender terms; half the members wanted assurances that the emperor would maintain his hereditary and traditional role in a postwar Japan before surrender could be considered. But in light of the bombing of Hiroshima on 06 August, Nagasaki on 09 August, and the Soviet invasion of Manchuria, as well as the emperor's own request that the Council "bear the unbearable," it was agreed: Japan would surrender.
      Tokyo sends a message to its ambassadors in Switzerland and Sweden, which was then passed on to the Allies. The message formally accepts the Potsdam Declaration but included the proviso that "said Declaration does not comprise any demand which prejudices the prerogatives of His Majesty as sovereign ruler." When the message reaches Washington, President Truman, unwilling to inflict any more suffering on the Japanese people, especially on "all those kids," orders a halt to atomic bombing, He also wants to know whether the stipulation regarding "His Majesty" is a deal breaker. Negotiations between Washington and Tokyo ensued. Meanwhile, savage fighting continued between Japan and the Soviet Union in Manchuria.
1944 Race riots in Athens, Alabama
1944 during World War II, American forces overcame remaining Japanese resistance on Guam.
1941 Great Britain and the Soviet Union promise aid to Turkey if it is attacked by the Axis Powers.
1938 Firma del armisticio entre Japón y la URSS para solucionar el litigio fronterizo de Manchukuo.
1938 48ºC, Pendleton, Oregon (state record)
1927 Comienza a esculpirse en la roca viva del monte Rushmore (Dakota del Sur, EE.UU.) el monumento a los presidentes norteamericanos Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln y Rooselvet, obra de Gutzon Borglum y su hijo.
1927 Fin de la guerra que España mantenía en el norte de África contra los insurgentes marroquíes.
1921 Franklin D. Roosevelt is stricken with polio at his summer home on the Canadian island of Campobello.
1920 Se firma el tratado de Sèvres, acuerdo entre los Aliados y Turquía que pone fin al Imperio turco.
1913 2nd Balkan War ends, Treaty of Bucharest, Bulgaria loses — Se firma el tercer tratado de Bucarest, acuerdo que pone fin a la segunda Guerra Balcánica por el que Bulgaria debe ceder una parte de Macedonia a Serbia y a Grecia.
1912. Virginia Stephen, 30, marries Leonard Woolf, 31, at a registry office in London.      ^top^
      Virginia Stephen, born in 1882, grew up surrounded by intellectuals. Her father was a writer and philosopher, and her mother was a British aristocrat. In 1902, Virginia's father died, and Virginia took a house with her sister and two brothers in the Bloomsbury district of London near the British Museum. The family developed close friendships with other intellectuals and writers, including writer E.M. Forster, economist J.M. Keynes, and biographer Lytton Strachey. Their circle of friends came to be called the Bloomsbury group, a leisured set associated with progressive intellectual ideas and sexual liberty: Many of the group, including Woolf herself, were bisexual or homosexual.
      Woolf became a regular contributor to the Times Literary Supplement and also took odd jobs to support herself until she inherited a comfortable income from an aunt. Virginia marries writer and social reformer Leonard Woolf in 1912. The couple establishes the Hogarth Press in their dining room several years later. In addition to Virginia Woolf's later novels, the press also published T.S. Eliot and translations of Chekhov and Dostoevsky.
      Virginia Woolf published her groundbreaking novel Mrs. Dalloway in 1925. Its stream-of-consciousness structure deeply influenced later writers. That same year, she fell in love with poet Vita Sackville-West, who was married to the bisexual diplomat and author Harold Nicolson. The affair inspired Woolf's most whimsical work, Orlando. Woolf wrote several more novels as well as social and literary criticism. However, she suffered from depression and mental illness all her life. In 1941, fearful for her own sanity and afraid of the coming world war, she filled her pockets with rocks and drowned herself.

VIRGINIA WOOLF ONLINE:
Monday or Tuesday, Monday or Tuesday (another site), Night and Day (1919), Night and Day (another site), The Voyage Out (1915)
Leonard Woolf translated Maxim Gorky's Reminiscences of Anton Chekhov and Reminiscences of Leo Nikolaevich Tolstoy.
1911 The House of Lords in Great Britain gives up its veto power, making the House of Commons the more powerful House.
Leaving Peking Paris-bound     ^top^
1907 Peking to Paris Great Automobile Race is won
by prince Borghese of Italy, who covered the 16'000 km in 62 days. Driving across Asia and Europe, the prince encountered brush fire, got stuck in a swamp, and was pulled over by a policeman in Belgium. The policeman refused to believe that the prince was racing, rather than merely speeding. [picture: departure from Peking]

Arrivée de Scipione Borghese à Paris. La foule enthousiaste acclame le vainqueur de la course Pékin - Paris, la plus extraordinaire des courses automobiles de l'histoire (16'000 km). A bord de son " Itala ", le pilote italien avait connu mille mésaventures, mais n'en avait pas moins rallié la capitale française après 62 jours de route et avec vingt jours d'avance sur le deuxième!
1893 Chinese deported from SF under Exclusion Act
1885 Leo Daft opens America's 1st coml operated electric streetcar (Balt)
1877 Amanda McFarland begins Alaskan mission      ^top^
      Amanda McFarland, a dedicated Presbyterian missionary, becomes the first white woman to settle at Fort Wrangell, Alaska. The wife of a Presbyterian minister from Illinois, McFarland joined her husband in opening a mission to the Indians of New Mexico in 1867. Despite suffering from chronic health problems, McFarland was a dedicated and energetic missionary who appears to have genuinely cared for the Native Americans she worked with. She twice crossed the Plains by stagecoach to carry out her duties, and on one occasion, hostile Amerindians pursued her coach. Undaunted, McFarland continued to aid her husband's missionary work until he died in 1875 while the couple was working with Nez Percé Indians in the Northwest.
      Widowed and alone, McFarland moved to Portland, Oregon. There she met Sheldon Jackson, a prominent missionary who was interested in taking the Presbyterian gospel to the Indians of Alaska. Jackson convinced McFarland to become missionary in southern Alaska, and on this day in 1877, she took charge of the mission school at Fort Wrangell. Though Alaska had been a US territory nearly a decade at that time, it was still almost unsettled beyond a few military and fur trapping outposts. McFarland was the first and only white woman at Fort Wrangell, and after Jackson left her in charge to visit other missions, she was the only Protestant missionary in all of Alaska. McFarland was equal to the task. For more than a year she served as the minister to the small settlement. She quickly won the trust of the native Alaskans, and the Indians turned to her for advice on spiritual, legal, and medical matters. She once presided over an Indian constitutional convention. In 1878, a male minister arrived at Fort Wrangell and took over many of McFarland's official duties. Until her death in 1912 at the age of 80, McFarland remained an immensely influential woman within both the White and Native American communities of southern Alaska.
1866 Transatlantic cable laid - Former Pres Buchanan communicates over it to Queen Victoria
1864 Confederate Commander John Bell Hood sends his cavalry north of Atlanta to cut off Union General William Sherman's supply lines.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1862 Affair on Nueces River, Texas
1839 Comunicación pública de la Academia de Ciencias de París del descubrimiento de Daguerre, el daguerrotipo, primer paso para la fotografía.
1835 Mob of whites & oxen pulled black school to a swamp out of Canaan NH
1833 Chicago incorporates as a village of about 200
1831 Former slave Nat Turner led violent insurrection against slavery
1827 Race riots in Cincinnati (1000 Blacks leave for Canada)
1821 Missouri enters the Union      ^top^
     It is the twenty-fourth state of the US, and the first located entirely west of the Mississippi River. Named for one of the Native American groups that once lived in the territory, Missouri became a US possession as part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. In 1817, Missouri Territory applied for statehood, but the question of whether it would be slave or free delayed approval by Congress. In 1820, the Missouri Compromise was reached, admitting Missouri as a slave state but excluding slavery from the other lands of the Louisiana Purchase north of Missouri's southern border. However, in August of 1821, Missouri's entrance into the Union as a slave state was met with disapproval by a sizable portion of its citizens. In 1861, when other slave states succeeded from the Union, Missouri chose to remain; although a provincial government was established in the next year by Confederate sympathizers. During the war, Missourians were split in their allegiances, supplying both Union and Confederate forces with troops. Lawlessness persisted during this period, and Missouri-born Confederate guerillas such as Jesse James kept its spirit alive after the South's defeat. With the ratification of Missouri's new constitution by the citizens of the state in 1875, those old divisions were finally put to rest.
1809 Ecuador declares independence from Spain (National Day) — En Ecuador se produce el primer estallido independentista de las colonias españolas en América.
1806 The British Museum receives a copy of Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion.      ^top^
     it is a vicious anti-Jewish forgery published in Russia by Sergyei Nilus in 1805.
      Regretfully, Mr. Henry Ford Snr. initiated a campaign of Jew-hate in 1920. His Book, "THE INTERNATIONAL JEW" WAS BASED MAINLY ON "THE PROTOCOLS'. Howevert Mr. Ford completely retracted his views expressed in his book:

"To my great regret I learn that in the Dearborn Independent and in reprint pamphlets entitled, 'THE INTERNATIONAL JEW', there have appeared articles which induce the Jews to regard me as their enemy, promoting anti-Semitism.

"As a result of this survey I am deeply mortified that this journal, which is intended to be constructive and not destructive, has been made the medium for resurrecting exploded fictions, for giving currency to the so-called Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion, which have been demonstrated, as I learn, to be gross forgeries, and for contending that the Jews have been engaged in a conspiracy to control the capital and the industries of the world, besides laying at their door many offences against decency, public order and good morals...I deem it to be my duty as an honourable man to make amends for the wrong done to the Jews as fellow men and brothers, by asking their forgiveness for the harm which I have unintentionally committed, by retracting, as far as lies within my power the offensive charges laid at their door by these publications, and by giving them the unqualified assurance that henceforth they may look to me for friendship and good will...

"Had I appreciated even the general nature to say nothing of the details of these utterances, I would have forbidden their circulation without a moment's hesitation...This statement is made on my own initiative and wholly in the interest of right and justice, and is in accordance with what I regard as my solemn duty as a man and as a citizen."

What are the Protocols?

As many of our readers may not be familiar with this infamous forgery the following is a brief summary of its evil ingredients. The "Protocols" are set forth as the minutes of twenty-four secret sessions of "the innermost circle of the rulers of Zion". These fictitious minutes are thus laid down as twenty-four "Protocols" or master plan to enslave the world by the most dastardly and unscrupulous methods imaginable. here are a few examples:

  • "Our right lies in force. The word "right" is an abstract thought and proved by nothing. The word means no more than: Give me what I want in order that thereby I may have a proof that I am stronger than you." - Protocol 1. Article 12.
  • "The administrators, whom we shall choose from among the public, with strict regard to their capacities for servile obedience, will not be persons trained in the arts of government, and will therefore easily become pawns in our game in the hands of men of learning and genius who will be their advisors, specially bred and reared from early childhood to rule the affairs of the whole world."- Protocol 2. Article 2.
  • "In order to put public opinion into our hands we must bring it into a state of bewilderment by giving expression from all sides to so many contradictory opinions and for such length of time as will suffice to make the gym (Gentiles) lose their heads in the labyrinth and come to see that the best thing is to have no opinion of any kind in matters political, which is not given to the public to understand, because they are understood only by him who guides the public. This is the first secret."- Protocol 5. Article 10.
  • "The Press, which with a few exceptions that may be disregarded, is already entirely in our hands."- Protocol 7. Article 5.

How Did the Protocols Originate?

In 1901 a Russian official in the Chancery of the Synod of Moscow named Serge A. Niles published a strange work entitled, "The Great in the Little and the AntiChrist as a Proximate Political Possibility". Nilus expressed the view that only the Holy Russian Empire could save the world from the rule of Antichrist. The idea behind the book was to bolster the absolute authority of the Czarist regime. In 1905 a second edition of the book appeared with one significant addition - the Protocols! Thus was born one of the most infamous documents ever published. And only Nilus himself ever claimed to have seen the original.

The "Protocols" Exposed as an Infamous Forgery

In August 1921 Mr. Phillip Graves, correspondent of the London "Times" in Constantinople came into the possession of a small book in a tattered condition. Such an insignificant incident may well have passed unnoticed and been swallowed into oblivion had not Mr. Graves recognized a sentence as being identical with one of the "Protocols". Yet, THIS BOOK HAD THE NAME "JOLI" AS THE AUTHOR!

Mr. Graves compared the book written by Monsieur Joli with a copy of the "Protocols" and in it he found repeated word for word, paragraph for paragraph and page for page the text of the earlier book written by Joli. The only alteration was that instead of the word "Zion" Joli had written "France", and instead of "We the Jews" the original book had "The Emperor"!

The book written by Joli was a satire directed against Napoleon III and was entitled "Dialogue in Hell between Machiavelli and Montesquieu". IT HAD NOTHING WHATEVER TO DO WITH THE JEWS!

In three consecutive issues dated 16th, 17th and 18th August, 1921 the London "Times" printed long extracts from the "Protocols" side by side with Joli's "Dialogue in Hell". Thus was the infamous forgery exposed as ONE OF THE MOST INSOLENT FORGERIES OF ALL TIME.

Count Heinrich Coudenhove-Kalergi in his book "ANTI-SEMITISM THROUGHOUT THE AGES" (English translation, Hutchinson, 1935) writes: "This plagiarism is an anti-Semitic forgery from the beginning to the end without any connection whatever with Jewish personalities, groups, organizations or conferences. The publication is in no wise, whether directly or indirectly, a product of the Jewish spirit, or Jewish tradition, or of Jewish sentiments and opinions.

"In the entire fraud committed against humanity which the "Protocols" represents, the Jews are merely innocent objects, while the anti-Semites were the guilty agents. Thousands of Jews have been massacred, maltreated, plundered and imprisoned in the Ukraine and in Germany on account of this forgery. At the same time many millions of non-Jews have been deceived by the "Protocols", they have been induced to commit deeds and to utter words which they would most deeply regret were the facts of the forgery known to them. No book and no event in the history of modern anti-Semitism has played such an important part as this plagiarism; it constitutes the piece de resistance, the choice morsel of after-war anti-Semitism.

"It is, therefore, they duty of all decent men in the world, be they non-Jews or Jews, Anti-Semites or Philo-Semites, to work with all their might and see to it that this shameless lie, forgery and calumny disappears from the world.

"It ought to be made clear to all those who know the "Protocols" that the publication is a plagiarism of fatal world importance. The work of enlightenment is not only a duty to the calumniated Jews, but also to truth, for it is no exaggeration to say that the so called "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" are both one of the most insolent forgeries of all time and one of the meanest calumnies which has existed in human history."

Hitler knew only too well how to manipulate the masses with lies of great magnitude and he exploited the "Protocols" to the fullest extent. Four years after the publication of the warning contained in Count Kalergi's book the harvest of hatred against the Jews began in Europe, and the flames of the holocaust were not extinguished until six million innocent Jewish victims had perished.

The Law Steps In

Dr. A. Zander, editor of a Swiss Nazi organ, published a series of articles on the acceptability of the "Protocols". But Swiss law offered redress and community leaders in that country determined to expose the fraudulent basis of the iniquitous document before a well-respected court of justice.

Trial began in Berne on October 29, 1934, the plaintiffs being Dr. J. Dreyfus-Brodsky, Dr. Marcus Cohen, and Dr. Marcus Ehrenpreis.

On May 19, 1935, the Cantonal Court of Berne, after full investigation declared the "Protocols" to be forgeries, plagiarisms, and obscene literature and gave judgment in favour of the Cantonal Bernese Act. The Nazi, Dr. Zander, was fined.

At Grahamstown, South Africa, in August, 1934, the Court imposed fines totalling 1.775 ($4,500) on three men for concocting a modern version of the "Protocols".

1793 Se inaugura en Francia el denominado Museo Central de las Artes o Museo de la República, en la gran galería del palacio del Louvre.
1792 King Louis XVI arrested      ^top^
      During the French Revolution, an organized mob of French peasants known as the sans-culottes stormed the Tuileries Palace in Paris and arrested King Louis XVI and his family.
      Louis XVI had ascended to the French throne in 1774, and from the start was unsuited to deal with the severe financial problems that he had inherited from his grandfather, King Louis XV. In 1789, in a last-ditch attempt to resolve his country's financial crisis, Louis assembled the States-General, a national assembly that represented the three "estates" of the French people — the nobles, the clergy, and the commons.
      The States-General had not been assembled since 1614, and the third estate — the commons — used the opportunity to declare itself the National Assembly, igniting the French Revolution. On 14 July 1789, violence erupted when Parisians stormed the Bastille — a state prison where they believed ammunition was stored. Although outwardly accepting the revolution, Louis resisted the advice of constitutional monarchists who sought to reform the monarchy in order to save it, and also permitted the reactionary plotting of his unpopular queen, Marie Antoinette.
      In October of 1789, a mob marched on Versailles and forced the royal couple to move to Tuileries, and in June of 1791, opposition to the royal pair had become so fierce that the two were forced to flee. During their attempted flight to Austria, Marie and Louis were apprehended at Varennes, France, and taken back to Paris. There, Louis was forced to accept the constitution of 1791, which reduced him to a mere figurehead.
      On 10 August 1792, the royal couple is arrested by the sans-culottes and imprisoned in the Temple, and in September, the monarchy was abolished by the National Convention (which had replaced the National Assembly). The next January, Louis was convicted of treason and condemned to death by a bare majority of one vote. On January 21, 1793, Louis walked steadfastly to the guillotine in the Place de la Revolution in Paris and was executed. Nine months later, Marie Antoinette was convicted of treason by a tribunal, and on October 16, she followed her husband to the guillotine.
Exaspérés par la menace du manifeste Brunswick, les sans-culottes sont sur le point de prendre les Tuileries. Le roi se réfugie à l'Assemblée. "Je suis venu ici pour éviter un grand crime et je pense que je ne saurais être plus en sûreté qu'au milieu de vous", dit-il aux députés. Pendant que les combats continuent, que les Suisses qui ont voulu résister sont émasculés, défenestrés, empalés, décapités, et que des nobles et des serviteurs du Palais-Royal sont tués, l'Assemblée vote. Le roi entend l'Assemblée voter ce texte : " Le chef du pouvoir exécutif est provisoirement suspendu de ses fonctions." Le roi "en sûreté" n'est plus rien, vive la République naissante !
1790 Robert Gray's Columbia, completes 1st American around world voyage
1787 Turkey declares war on Russia
1779 Louis XVI of France frees the last remaining serfs on royal land.
1759 Proclamación de Carlos III como rey de España.
1680 In New Mexico, Pop‚ leads rebellion of Pueblo Indians against Spaniards
1678 Traité de Nimègue. Celui-ci est le premier des trois traités de Nimègue. A la Hollande, avec laquelle Louis XIV signe en ce jour, Maastricht et la principauté d'Orange sont restituées. Paz de Nimega, que puso fin a la guerra que Luis XIV de Francia sostenía contra España, Holanda, Estados alemanes y Dinamarca.
1628 The Swedish warship Vasa capsizes and sinks in Stockholm harbor on her maiden voyage.
1582 Russia ends its 25-year war with Poland.
1557 Bataille de Saint Quentin.      ^top^
      Le connétable Anne de Montmorency tente de porter secours à l'amiral Gaspard de Coligny, 38 ans, qui est enfermé dans la ville avec seulement sept cents hommes, assiégé par les hommes de Emanuele Filiberto "Testa di Ferro", 29 ans, duc de Savoie, allié de Philippe II d'Espagne, 30 ans, qui viennent de commencer le siège de Saint-Quentin. Les munitions, que l'on cherche à porter par bateaux jusqu'à la ville, s'enlisent dans la boue des marais de la Somme. Une charge brutale de la cavalerie espagnole écrase devant les murs les troupes du connétable, qui est blessé et fait prisonnier par les impériaux.
      Malgré ce désastre, Coligny tient encore plus de deux semaines. Le 27 août, la ville est prise. Pillage, viols, massacres. Coligny lui aussi est fait prisonnier. Si la route de Paris lui est ouverte, le roi d'Espagne Philippe II doute de ses forces et préfère se retirer à Bruxelles.
     Montmorency et Coligny seront relâchés deux ans plus tard, quand le traité de Cateau-Cambrésis aura fait la paix entre la France et l'Espagne.
1539 King Francis of France declares that all official documents are to be written in French, not Latin.
1519 Magellan's 5 ship set sail to circumnavigate the Earth
1304 Bataille de Mons-en-Pévèle. En Flandre, Philippe le Bel est venu venger la défaite de Courtrai. Il remporte sur les Flamands la victoire de Mons-en-Pévèle.
1297 Canonisation de Louis IX. Le pape Boniface VIII autorise le clergé à verser le décime au roi de France, et canonise Louis IX, qui devient Saint Louis.
0955 Battle of Lechfeld in Germany: Otto organizes his nobles and defeats the invading Magyars
0654 St Eugene I begins his reign as Pope.
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Deaths which occurred on an 10 August:
2002 Yafit Herenstein, and a Fatah activist who, at about 22:00, cuts through the electronic fence of the moshav (enclave settlement) Mechora in the northern Jordan valley. 20 minutes later he shoots and wounds Jewish settler Arno Herenstein (putting him into a coma), who is approaching his home in his car. Upon hearing the shots, Yafit rushes outside, with a cordless telephone at her ear. The Palestinian shoots a bullet from Arno's M-16 rifle; it cuts through the phone into Yafit's head and kills her instantly. Then soldiers from a battalion of the Nahal Haredi based in the moshav, alerted by the electronic fence, arrive and shoot the infiltrator. Yafit leaves behind her girls: four-month-old Chen, not yet weaned, and two-and-a-half-year-old Shai. Electronic fences were installed at all settlements in the Jordan Valley following the February 2002 attack by.a Hamas terrorist in the Hamra enclave settlement, not far from Mechora, murdering a mother and daughter, and an IDF reservist, and being shot dead.
2002 Ahmed al Kouraini, 54, Palestinian shot for no reason by an Israeli soldier. Kouraini worked for Nablus' electric department and was on his way to work at the emergency fire services building during a curfew (as allowed because of his job) when he was stopped by an IDF tank. They shot in the air and then a soldier shot him in the head with one bullet.
2001 At least 8 Macedonian soldiers when their truck, in a convoy near Ljubanci and Ljuboten, 10 km north of Skopje, drive over a land mine freshly planted by ethnic Albanian rebels fighting for their rights. 6 soldiers are injured.
Karla Selley1999 Karla Selley, 5, by asphyxia when coming out of general anesthesia in botched tooth extraction.      ^top^
     Dentist Michael Lane, 40, of Bolton, Greater Manchester, England, and anaesthetist George Vanner, 65, of Bilsborrow, near Preston, would be charged with manslaughter. Karla chokes to death on blood, mucus and debris after having her tooth removed.A catalogue of errors by the two men is to blame. Karla [photo] had been taken to the surgery by her mother Tracey to have a baby tooth removed. The child is given a general anaesthetic as she is terrified of injections.
      The operation is completed very quickly and it is uneventful in its early and middle stages. The tooth is removed without problems but as Karla is coming round from the anaesthetic problems arise.
      The two practicioners fall well below that high standard of care which they should exercise and as a result Karla dies.
      Problems first become obvious when Karla starts to come round following the extraction of the tooth. But the problems had started before that.
      There were a number of failings:
  • a hospital was not notified about the operation, as is normal
  • before the tooth is removed, Karla's mouth is not cleaned out with suction as it should have been.
  • she is not hooked up to an electrocardiagraph machine or a pulse oxymeter to monitor her heart beat and reactions while she is unconscious
  • her mouth was not cleaned out for a second time after the extraction of the tooth to remove debris, mucus and blood.
  • In addition, there were only three people present in the room during the operation rather than four as is usual.
  • Following the removal of the tooth, Mr Lane left the room against regulations, it's at this stage that problems began to be apparent. Karla coughed, she pushed against Dr Vanner and she changed color. The dentist should have been in the room at that stage, but he was not. He returned very quickly then because Karla was obviously in trouble and breathing resuscitation began. These attempts were hopeless. If this had not been the case Karla's life could still have been saved. Karla is given an electric shock which is much too large for her weight and although this does not lead to her death it is an example of the incompetence of the resuscitation technique used.
          There is no adrenaline at the surgery and when the resuscitation team arrive they notice that Dr Vanner is unable to locate a suitable vein to inject with the adrenaline they brought.
          Karla is eventually taken to a hospital where she dies at 16:00.
          Her death was caused by obstruction of the airway. This should not have happened if the two “professional” men were acting competently and properly. But even if it did, had they been adequate and competent in the art of resuscitation she could have been saved.
  • 1988 Arnulfo Arias Madrid, 86, three times president of Panama (June 1940-October 1941, November 1949-May 1951, and Oct. 1-12, 1968) and three times deposed.— Arnulfo Arias, político panameño.
    1976 Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, 92, German print-maker. LINKSDevotion
    1969 Leno and Rosemary LaBianca, murdered in their Los Angeles home by members of Charles Manson's cult, one day after actress Sharon Tate and four other people were slain.
    1963 Estes Kefauver, 60, (D-Sen-Tn) He wrote Crime in America (1951)
    1960 Oswald Veblen, mathematician who made important contributions to projective and differential geometry, and topology.
    1945 Robert Goddard father of American rocketry
    1929 Fatou, mathematician
    1923 Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida, 60, Spanish painter born on 28 February 1863. — LINKSEn la PlayaNiños en la Playa
    1919 Ukranian National Army massacres 25 Jews in Podolia Ukraine
    1918 Henrici, mathematician.
    1911 Jozef Israëls, Dutch painter specialized in Landscapes , born on 27 January 1824. — LINKSInterior of a HutPeasant Family at Table
    1908 Louise (Chandler) Moulton, author. MOULTON ONLINE: Poems and Sonnets
    1904 Horatio Franklin Moore, author. MOORE ONLINE: Personal and Political Ballads, Reminiscences of Pioneer Days in St. Paul, Women of the War: Their Heroism and Self-Sacrifice
    1879 George Long, translated The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (online)
    1876 Edward William Lane, translated The Thousand and One Nights (online)
    1869 Dupré, mathematician
    1868 Adah Isaacs Menken, author. MENKEN ONLINE:: Infelicia, Infelicia (another site)  
    1861 Hundreds as Rebs defeat Yanks at Wilson's Creek.      ^top^
          The struggle for Missouri erupts with the Battle of Wilson's Creek, where a motley band of raw Confederates defeat a Union force in the southwestern section of the state. Union General Nathaniel Lyon, who commanded a Union force of 6400 soldiers near Springfield, Missouri, was up against two Rebel forces commanded by Generals Sterling Price and Ben McCulloch. Although the Confederates were poorly equipped and trained at this early stage of the war, Price and McCulloch had a combined force nearly twice the size of Lyon's. But the impetuous Union commander did not want to cede the region without a fight, and so he planned an attack on 10 August. Lyon sent General Franz Sigel with 1200 men to attack the rear while he struck the surprised Confederates just after dawn. At first, the artillery barrage sent the Rebel camp into a panic, and the day seemed to belong to the Yankees. But Sigel mistook a force emerging from the smoke for an Iowa regiment, when it was actually a Louisiana regiment clad in similar uniforms since many of the Rebel units were dressed in colors of their own choosing. The Confederates pushed Sigel back, and the tide turned against Lyon's force as well. In intense heat and humidity, the armies battled throughout the morning. Lyon was killed during one of the Confederate assaults, but the Union line managed to hold their ground. Although the Rebels withdrew from the field, the Union army was disorganized and running low on ammunition. Losses were heavy, with both sides suffering about 1200 casualties. The Federals soon retreated to Springfield and then back to the railhead at Rolla, Missouri, 100 miles to the northeast. Southwestern Missouri was secured for the Confederates.
    Darth Vader1847 Adam Wolfgang Töpffer, Swiss artist born on 20 May 1766.
    1843 Adrain, mathematician.
    1817 Léon-Matthieu Cochereau, French artist born on 10 February 1793. — Interior of the Studio of David
    1784 Allan Ramsay, Scottish Rococo era painter, specialized in Portraits, born in 1713. — MORE ON RAMSAY AT ART “4” AUGUST LINKSPrince of Wales, future George IIIGeorge IIIQueen Charlotte with her Two ChildrenPrince George Augustus of Mecklenburg-StrelitzDavid HumeThe Artist's WifeMrs. Martin
    1669 Paulus Orlando Bor (or Borro), Dutch artist.
    1655 Lodewyk de Vadder, Flemish painter born on 08 April 1605. — LINKS[Not to be confused with >>>]
    1456 Rossello di Jacopi Franchi, Italian artist born in 1377.
    1759 Fernando VI, rey de España.
    0802 Aepinus, mathematician
    Births which occurred on an 10 August:      ^top^
    1930 Marta Portal, escritora española.
    1926 Karp, mathematician
    1924 Carlos Castro Saavedra, escritor y poeta colombiano.
    1912 Jorge Amado, novelista y académico brasileño.
    1910 Angus Campbell US, psychologist (Elections & Political Order)
    1909 Mohammed V King of Morocco (1953, 1955-61)
    1874 Herbert Clark Hoover West Branch, Iowa, Quaker, orphan, mining engineer, millionaire businessman, relief administrator during and after WWI, Commerce Secretary, (R) 31st US President (1929-1933) during the start of the Depression, writer of The Challenge to Liberty (1934) and Addresses Upon the American Road (8 volumes, 1936-61), head of the two Hoover Commissions (1947-49, 1953-55). Hoover died on 20 October 1964.
    1869 Lawrence Binyon Vienna Austria, writer (Symbolic Wounds) — BINYON ONLINE: For the Fallen
    1867 Valerius de Saedeler, Dutch artist who died in 1941 or 1942.
    1865 James Wilson Morrice, Canadian painter who died on 23 January 1924. — LINKS
    1865 Aleksandr Konstantinovich Glazunov, Russian symphonic composer. He would write eight complete symphonies and two piano concertos. His first symphony was first performed on 29 March 1892. One of his last works was a concerto for saxophone, flute, and strings, in 1934. Glazunov was born in St. Petersburg. He studied under Rimsky-Korsakov, and was a professor (after 1899) and director of the St. Petersburg Conservatory (1905-1927). The Soviet government gave him the title of People’s Artist of the Republic, but he emigrated on 15 June 1928. Glazunov died in Paris on 21 March 1936. Among his compositions there are 8 symphonies, ballets Raimonda (first performed on 07 January 1898), Seasons of the Year (1899) and works of every branch except opera. — portrait by Serovportrait by Repin [05 Aug 1844 – 29 Sep 1930]
    1859 Meshchersky, mathematician
    1855 Frederick J. Foakes-Jackson, Anglican theologian. His numerous publications centered around church history. His best-remembered work is The Beginnings of Christianity, Part I: The Acts of the Apostles (5 volumes, 1919-33).
    1849 Howard Melancthon Hamill, author. HAMILL ONLINE: The Old South: A Monograph
    1846 Smithsonian Institution      ^top^
          After a decade of debate about how best to spend a bequest left to America from an obscure English scientist, President James K. Polk, 50, signs the Smithsonian Institution Act into law. Seventeen years earlier, on 27 June 1829, in Genoa, Italy, English scientist James Smithson died aged 64 after a long illness, leaving behind a will with a curious footnote. In the event that his only nephew died without any heirs, Smithson decreed that the whole of his estate go to "the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge." Even with the contingency clause, Smithson's generous bequest to a country that he had never visited aroused significant attention on both sides of the Atlantic.
          Smithson had been a fellow of the venerable Royal Society of London from the age of twenty-two, publishing numerous scientific papers on mineral composition, geology, and chemistry. In 1802, he overturned popular scientific opinion by proving that zinc carbonates were true carbonate minerals, and one type of zinc carbonate was later named smithsonite in his honor.
          Six years after his death, his nephew, Henry James Hungerford, indeed died without children, and on July 1, 1836, the US Congress authorized acceptance of Smithson's gift. President Andrew Jackson sent diplomat Richard Rush to England to negotiate for transfer of the funds, and two years later, Rush set sail for home with eleven boxes containing a total of 104'960 gold sovereigns, eight shillings, and seven pence, as well as Smithson's mineral collection, library, scientific notes, and personal effects. After the gold was melted down it amounted to a fortune worth well over five-hundred-thousand US dollars.
          After considering a series of recommendations, including the creation of a national university, a public library, or an astronomical observatory, Congress agreed that the bequest would support the creation of a museum, a library, and a program of research, publication, and collection in the arts, sciences, and history.
          On 10 August 1846, the act establishing the Smithsonian Institution is signed into law by President Polk.
          In 2000, the Smithsonian is composed of sixteen museums and galleries and the National Zoo and numerous research facilities in the United States and abroad. Nine Smithsonian museums are located on the National Mall between the Washington Monument and the Capitol. Five other museums and the Zoo are elsewhere in Washington, D.C., and both the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum and the National Museum of the American Indian Heye Center are in New York City. . Besides the original Smithsonian Institution Building, popularly known as the "Castle," visitors to Washington, D.C., tour the National Museum of Natural History, which houses the natural science collections, the National Zoological Park, and the National Portrait Gallery. The National Museum of American History houses the original Star-Spangled Banner and other artifacts of US history. The National Air and Space Museum has the distinction of being the most visited museum in the world, exhibiting marvels of aviation and space history such as the Wright brothers' plane and Freedom 7, the space capsule that took the first American into space. James Smithson, the Smithsonian Institution's great benefactor, is interred in a tomb in the Smithsonian Building.
    1845 Francesco Vinea, Italian artist who died on 22 October 1902.
    1841 James David Edgar, author. EDGAR ONLINE: This Canada of Ours and Other Poems (1893), The White Stone Canoe: a Legend of the Ottawas (1885)
    1836 Vittorio Avondo, Italian artist who died on 06 December 1910.
    1827 George Park Fisher, author. FISHER ONLINE: Essays on the Supernatural Origin of Christianity
    1810 Camilio Benso conte di Cavour, Piedmontese statesman, a conservative whose exploitation of international rivalries and of revolutionary movements brought about the unification of Italy (1861)
    1806 Julius Weisbach, mathematician
    1753 Edmund Jennings Randolph, governor of Virginia and first US attorney general.
    1749 Christian August Lorentzen, Danish artist who died on 08 May 1828.
    1650 Leender Knyff, Dutch artist who died in 1721 on 1722.
    1617 Ambrosius Brueghel, Flemish artist who died on 09 February 1675.
    1602 Roberval, mathematician.
    Holidays Ecuador : Independence Day (1809) / Missouri : Admission Day (1821)
    Religious Observances Ang, RC, Luth : St Laurence, deacon/martyr at Rome / Santos Lorenzo, Hugo, Basa, Paula, Jacobo, Ireneo y Aurelio.

    QUESTION:
    Why do they call it “a one-night stand” when they do it lying down? — [Not to mention that, frequently, they lie about it afterwards.]
    Thoughts for the day : “Some rise by sin and some by virtue fall.” [but not in the long run]
    “"There is no adequate defense, except stupidity, against the impact of a new idea.” —
    Percy Williams Bridgeman, US scientist (1882-1961).
    “There are plenty of defenses, such as reason or ignoring, against the stupidity of a comment that equates ‘new idea’ and ‘good idea’.”
    “There are plenty of defenses, such as reason or ignoring, against the stupidity of equating ‘new idea’ and ‘bad idea’.”

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