CURRENT UPDATES: TODAY2 TO TODAY+2
| On an 31 August:
2001 World Conference Against Racism begins in South Africa. Individual coutries are opposed to consideration of the treatment of: Palestinians: (US, Canada, Israel), Dalits [=Untouchables] (India), slaves and reparations due their descendants (US), Tibetans (China). etc, etc.
2000 Corruption trial of former dictator Suharto, 79, starts in Djakarta, Indonesia, but, after one hour, it is postponed for two weeks, as the accused fails to appear because, his lawyers claim, he is too ill to stand trial.. The court wants him examined by independent physicians. In any case, president Wahid had said that he will pardon Suharto, if he is tried and convicted.
2000 US President Clinton vetoes a bill that would have gradually repealed inheritance taxes, saying it would have benefited the wealthiest Americans while threatening the nation's financial well-being.
1994 Despedida en Berlín de las últimas tropas del Ejército Rojo, que también se retira de Letonia y Estonia.
1991 Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan declare their independence, raising to 10 the number of republics seeking to secede from the Soviet Union. Los parlamentarios de Uzbekistán y los de Kirguizistán proclaman la independencia de estas repúblicas de la URSS. , raising to 10 the number of republics seeking to secede from the Soviet Union.
1991 In Washington D.C., hundreds of thousands of union members march in a "Solidarity Day" protest.
| 1990 La República Federal de Alemania (RFA) y la República Democrática
Alemana (RDA) firman el Tratado de la Unión.
1989 Libia y Chad firman un acuerdo sobre la franja de Auzu, lo que pone fin a más de 15 años de litigio fronterizo entre ambos países.
1980 Poland's Solidarity labor union founded
1979 Comet Howard-Koomur-Michels collides with the Sun
1978 Symbionese Liberation Army founders William & Emily Harris plead guilty to 1974 kidnapping of newspaper heiress Patricia Hearst
1961 A concrete wall replaces the barbed wire fence that separates East and West Germany, it will be called the Berlin wall.
1957 Malaya (Malaysia) gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1955 1st sun-powered automobile demonstrated, Chicago.
1942 The British army under General Bernard Law Montgomery defeats Field Marshal Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps in the Battle of Alam Halfa in Egypt.
1928 Turquía acuerda adoptar el alfabeto latino y abandonar el árabe.
1925 Guerra de Marruecos: los generales Pétain (francés) y Primo de Rivera (español) trazan en Algeciras el plan de acción conjunta contra Abd-el-Krim.
1925 Asteroid 2001 CU11, about 800 m across, passes at about 500'000 km from Earth, but nobody notices until 2001.
1919 Caída de la dictadura de Bela Kun, en Hungría, por su fracaso económico y por la invasión de las tropas rumanas.
1919 Communist Labor Party of America is founded in Chicago, with the motto, "Workers of the world unite!"
1915 I Guerra Mundial. Alemania y Austria dividen Polonia en dos distritos: Varsovia para Alemania y Kielce para los austriacos.
1907 The Anglo-Russian Convention is signed in St. Petersburg, settling differences between the UK and Russia over Persia, Afghanistan and Tibet. It enables England, Russia & France to form the Triple Entente.
1887 Thomas A Edison patents Kinetoscope, (produces moving pictures)
1864 At the Democratic convention in Chicago, General George B. McClellan is nominated for president.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1848 Se declara la Independencia de Costa Rica.
1848 La Asamblea Constituyente de Austria, tras suprimir la dependencia de los campesinos de los señores, declara libres sus propiedades territoriales.
1839 El general liberal Espartero y el carlista Maroto firman el Convenio de Vergara, con el que se pone fin a la primera guerra carlista en España.
1813 Se produce la batalla de San Marcial, conflicto dentro de la Guerra de Independencia española, que supuso una victoria estratégica del mando aliado, pues acabó con la ocupación francesa del País Vasco y puso fin a las operaciones militares en la zona.
1802 Captain Merriwether Lewis leaves Pittsburgh to meet up with Captain William Clark and begin their trek to the Pacific Ocean.
1778 British kill 17 Stockbridge indians in the Bronx during Revolution
1756 The British at Fort William Henry, New York, surrender to Louis Montcalm of France.
1535 Pope Paul II deposes and excommunicates English King Henry VIIII, who had changed much since he had been declared by an earlier pope "Most Christian King" and "Defender of the Faith."
1534 Jan of Leyden declares himself King David as he leads a peasant revolt.
1521 Cortes captures the city of Tenochtitlan, Mexico, and sets it on fire.
1303 The War of Vespers in Sicily ends with an agreement between Charles of Valois, who invaded the country, and Frederick, the ruler of Sicily.
1216 Honorius III is crowned in Rome. A gentle and beloved pope, he is also remembered for the useful biographies he wrote.
| Deaths which
occurred on an 31 August:
2001 Rich Hernandez, 37, Santi Arovitx, 28, and Kip Krigbaum, 45, respectively pilot, co-pilot, and crew chief of a Columbia Helicopters Vertol 107 (13-meter fuselage, a rotor at each end), one of the largest of 15 helicopters assigned to the largest (100 sq. km) current wildfire in Montana, which crashes in a brushy ravine north of Yellowstone National Park, during a maintenance flight to check the helicopter. The fire was started on 14 August by lightning, so there is nobody to charge with murder, unlike in the case of the collision of two firefighting aircrafts in Northern California that killed two pilots on 27 August 2001.
2001 Hagop "Jake" Kuredjian, 40, and James Beck, 35, who fires 150 rounds at federal officers and sheriff's officials (including Los Angeles County sheriff's deputy Kuredjian) trying to serve a search warrant at his home in Santa Clarita, California, because a neighbor reported that Beck was stockpiling weapons and falsely claiming to be a US Marshal. Beck's charred remains are found the next day in his home destroyed by a fire after the gunfight. Beck was a police officer from June 1987 to August 1988 but was fired for failure to satisfactorily complete his probation period. Then he had numerous convictions for burglary, receiving stolen property and impersonating a police officer.
|1997 Princess Diana of
Wales, 36, her suitor, Dodi al Fayed, 41, and her
drunk driver, Henri Paul, in an automobile accident while
speeding away from paparazzi. She was the divorced wife of Prince
Charles of Wales. Injured was her bodyguard, Trevor Rees-Jones,
the lone survivor of the accident
On July 29, 1981, nearly four billion people in seventy-four countries had watched on TV the marriage of Prince Charles, heir to the British throne, to Lady Diana, a young English schoolteacher. Married in a grand ceremony at St. Paul's Cathedral in the presence of 2650 guests, the couple's romance was for the moment the envy of the world.
However, before long the couple grew apart. On August 28, 1996, two months after Queen Elizabeth II urged the couple to divorce, the prince and princess reached a final agreement. In exchange for a generous settlement, and the right to retain her apartments at Kensington Palace and her title of princess, Diana agreed to relinquish the title of "her Royal Highness" and any future claims to the British throne. In the year between the divorce and her fatal car accident, the popular princess had promoted charitable causes, such as the prohibition of land mines.
Diana, Princess of Wales, dies in Paris' Pitié-Salpetrière Hospital after suffering massive chest injuries in an early morning car accident. Her companion, Dodi Fayed, was killed instantly in the 00:25 crash, as was driver Henri Paul, who was drunk and lost control of the Mercedes in a highway underpass. He was driving at excessive speeds in a reckless attempt to escape paparazzi photographers. Diana's bodyguard, Trevor Rees Jones, escaped with serious but nonfatal injuries. He was the only one wearing his seat belt. The death of Diana, beloved by millions for her beauty and good nature, plunged the world into mourning.
On 01 July 1961, Diana Frances Spencer was born at Park House, the home that her parents rented on Queen Elizabeth II's estate at Sandringham, England. In her childhood, her playmates were Prince Andrew and Prince Edward, the younger sons of Queen Elizabeth. When her father inherited the title Earl of Spencer in 1975, she became known as Lady Diana Spencer. After completing her education, Lady Diana became a kindergarten teacher at a fashionable school in a suburb of London.
In 1980, she began a romance with Prince Charles, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth. In February 1981, the 33-year-old Prince of Wales announced his engagement to the 19-year-old schoolteacher. On 29 July 1981, nearly one billion television viewers in 74 countries tuned in to witness her marriage to the heir to the British throne at St. Paul's Cathedral. Their first child, Prince William, was born in 1982, and their second, Prince Henry, in 1984.
Before long, however, the tale couple grew apart. The paparazzi freelance photographers made Diana one of the most photographed women in the world, and privately she suffered from eating disorders and depression. In 1992, Diana and Charles formally separated. In August 1996, the prince and princess reached a final divorce agreement after prolonged negotiations. In exchange for a generous settlement and the right to retain her apartments at Kensington Palace and her title Princess of Wales, Diana agreed to relinquish the title Her Royal Highness and any future claims to the British throne.
In the year after her divorce, the popular princess maintained a high public profile and continued to promote many humanitarian causes, including support for AIDS victims and a campaign against land mines. In late 1996, she became involved with millionaire Dodi Al Fayed, the son of the Egyptian-born owner of the Harrods department stores. Their romance grew in 1997, and in August Diana took a holiday with Dodi in the Mediterranean. As always, the paparazzi followed closely behind, and one photographer was paid £3 million by the tabloids for a photo of Diana and Dodi kissing on Fayed's yacht.
On 30 August, Diana and Dodi flew from Sardinia to Paris. Diana planned to return to Kensington Palace the next morning after spending a night in Dodi's Paris villa. That evening, Diana and Dodi dined at a restaurant in Paris' Ritz Hotel, owned by Dodi's father since 1979. The paparazzi came out in force. Toward the end of the meal, Dodi told his chauffeur to drive his car back to his mansion in an attempt to draw off photographers. Henri Paul, the deputy chief of security at the Ritz, was enlisted to be the new driver. He agreed, even though he had been drinking heavily and was taking anti-depressant drugs that were not supposed to be mixed with alcohol.
At about midnight, Dodi and Diana emerged from the rear entrance of the Ritz. The paparazzi had not been fooled by the earlier ruse, and the couple were photographed getting into a bullet-proof Mercedes along with Diana's bodyguard. As they made their way across town, they were followed closely by paparazzi on motorcycles. On the Place de la Concorde, Henri Paul hit the accelerator in an attempt to escape the press. By the time they reached the underpass below the Pont de l'Alma, the driver was traveling an estimated 200 km/h in a 50-km/h speed zone. Paul lost control as they flew into the underpass, and the Mercedes ricocheted off a wall and slammed into pillars supporting the tunnel roof. The paparazzi, 100 meters behind at the time of the accident, were able to stop in time. Several of them then ran down the tunnel and began taking photos, which were later confiscated by police.
The Mercedes, lying crushed against the 13th pillar, was a tangle of smoking metal. Diana, barely alive with serious chest injuries, was trapped inside. Emergency crews arrived within minutes, but because the car was made of reinforced steel meant to withstand bullets it took nearly an hour and a half to extricate her from the crumbled vehicle. She was taken to the Pitié-Salpetrière Hospital, where she suffered cardiac arrest minutes after her arrival. Surgeons failed to revive her, and at 03:00 she was pronounced dead.
Diana's bodyguard was the only survivor of the crash. He suffered a concussion and other injuries and has no memory of the crash nor the events immediately preceding or following it. French authorities arrested 10 paparazzi photographers who were tailing the Mercedes and charged them with involuntary manslaughter. The charges were dropped when a formal investigation concluded that Henri Paul was solely at fault for the fatal accident.
The tragic death of Diana caused an outpouring of British national feeling not seen since the celebrations surrounding the end of World War II. More than 3500 phone lines were set up to take donations for a memorial fund, and within a year the charity fund raised $133 million, of which $48 million came from sales of Elton John's memorial recording "Candle in the Wind 1997" and $20 million from official Diana souvenirs. After being criticized for failing to satisfactorily match the grief of the British people, the royal family arranged for a state funeral to be held for Diana at Westminster Abbey on September 6. Diana's sons, William, 15, and Harry, 12, joined their father, Prince Charles; grandfather Prince Philip; and uncle Charles, the Earl of Spencer, to walk the final stretch of the procession with the casket.
Diana Spencer Francis, "Lady Di", princesa de Gales.
1996 Seven persons, drowned when their vehicle rolls into John
D. Long Lake in Union, S.C.; they had gone to see a monument to the two
little boys drowned by their mother Susan Smith in October 1994.
1986, 82 persons as an Aeromexico jetliner and a small private plane collide over Cerritos, Calif.
1986 Henry Moore, escultor británico.
1979 Celso Emilio Ferreiro, escritor español
1975 Remez, mathematician
1963 George F. Braque, in Paris, French Cubist and Fauvist painter, sculptor, printmaker, illustrator, born on 13 May 1882. MORE ON BRAQUE AT ART 4 2~DAY LINKS Paysage à l'Estaque Anvers Port en Normandie Viaduct à l'Estaque Château de la Roche~Guyon Le Violoniste Le Portugais Absinthe Poissons Noirs Nature Morte: le Jour Nature Morte Avec Bananes Job Deux Citrons Doris L'Oiseau blanc Fenêtres: Oiseaux Gris Oiseau de passage Fruit Dish Still Life with Mandolin II Viaduct Grand Nude
1955 Willi Baumeister, German abstract artist born on 22 January 1889. MORE ON BAUMEISTER AT ART 4 2~DAY LINKS Aru With Dots Motif Figures On Gray Spiral On Yellow Composition Magic Stone Amenophis Standing Figure with Blue Plane
1954 Nearly 70 persons, by hurricane Carol in northeastern US.
1951 The first of the North Koreans and US Marines to die as the 1st Marine Division begins its attack on Bloody Ridge in Korea. The four-day battle results in 2700 Marine casualties.
1945 Stefan Banach founded modern functional analysis and made major contributions to the theory of topological vector spaces. In addition, he contributed to measure theory, integration, and orthogonal series.
1931 (Thomas Henry) Hall Caine, author of The Scapegoat
1919: 35 members of a Jewish defense group, killed by Petlyura's Ukranian Army.
1915 Adolphe Célestin Pègoud, 26, [photo >]
During World War I, he becomes the first ace to be killed in aerial combat, shot down by a German two-seater piloted by his former student, Unteroffizier Kandulski, who two days later flew over the French lines and dropped a wreath with these words: "Dem im Kampfe fur sein Vaterland gefallenen Flieger Pègoud ehrt der Gegner" .
Pègoud was born on 15 June 1889. He got his pilot's licence (no. 1243) on 1 March 1913, at the Blériot Company.
On 20 August 1913, he had been the first person to parachute from an airplane, from 200 m above Buc, France (the plane, which he had been piloting, crashed). Less than a month later, became the first pilot to perform a loop (this is also claimed for Gustave Hamel, and for a Russian, Piotr Nesterov). Also in 1913, Pègoud became the first pilot to fly an aircraft in sustained inverted flight.
1908 William Guthrie, author. GUTHRIE ONLINE: The
Christian's Great Interest
1867 Charles Baudelaire, poeta francés.
1816 José Joaquín Camacho Lago, político y periodista colombiano.
1811 Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, French mathematician navigator who led the French naval expedition that first circled the globe, about which he wrote in Voyage Autour du Monde (1771). Born on 11 November 1729, he entered the army at age 24, he went to Canada in 1756 as aide-de-camp to general Louis-Joseph de Montcalm and fought against the British during the French and Indian War. In 1763 he switched to the navy and in 1764 established in the Falkland Islands a colony, which was ceded to Spain in 1767. He set out on his voyage around the world in December 1766, stopped at Buru in the Moluccas in September 1768, and without a shipwreck disembarked at Saint-Malo (comme le M. Dumollet de la chanson) in March 1769, though he had lost 7 men. Bougainville served a chef d'escadre with the French fleet supporting the US War of Independence (1779-1782). After a French defeat off Martinique (12 April 1782) he was court-martialed. Napoléon made him a senator, count, and gave him the Légion d'Honneur. Named for Bougainville are the largest of the Solomon Islands, a strait in the New Hebrides, and a plant genus of some 14 species of shrubs, vines, and small trees in the four-o'clock family (Nyctaginaceae) native to South America.
Portrait of Bougainville (1790, 88x71cm) by Joseph Ducreux. [>>>]
1724 Luis I, rey de España.
1721 Keill, mathematician
1709 Andrea Pozzo, Italian Baroque era painter born on 30 November 1642. MORE ABOUT POZZO AT ART 4 2~DAY LINKS The Apotheose of S. Ignazio _ detail: The Continents 1 _ detail: The Continents 2 Saint Francis Xavier Ange gardien
1057 Leofric husband of Lady Godiva
which occurred on an 31 August:
1980 Poland's Solidarity labor movement, as an agreement signed in Gdansk ends a 17-day-old strike.
1976 The First Index Investment Trust is started, the first index mutual fund fund for individual investors, with the $11.4 million it raised during its initial underwriting. It seeks investment results that parallel the performance of the Standard & Poor's 500 Index. [5~year comparison chart >] The Fund would be renamed Vanguard 500 Index Fund (symbol VFINX) in 1998 and become the world's largest mutual fund in March 2000. On its 25th anniversary it would have assets of $90.6 billion. Someone who invests $10'000 in the Trust on this day, and reinvests all dividends and capital gains thereafter, has $261'419 on 30 June 2001, for an average annual return of 14.05%. However someone who would have invested $10'000 on 01 September 2000, would have been left on 04 April 2001 with only $7241.50 (not counting possible dividends), for an annualized loss of 42%.
1908 William Saroyan,
in Fresno, Calif., the son of an Armenian immigrant, US writer
who made his initial impact during the Depression with a deluge
of brash, original, and irreverent stories celebrating the joy
of living in spite of poverty, hunger, and insecurity.
Saroyan's father died when the boy was three, and he was raised in an orphanage. His mother later reunited the family. To earn extra money for the family, Saroyan started selling newspapers on the streets of Fresno, California, at age eight. Although he left school at 15, he became an avid reader and haunted the public libraries. Saroyan published his first collection of stories, The Daring Young Man on the Flying Trapeze, in 1934, followed by Inhale and Exhale in 1936. His first play, My Heart's in the Highlands, was produced in 1939. His play The Time of Your Life, about a group of lonely drifters in a San Francisco bar, was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1940. Saroyan rejected the award, saying the play was no better than anything else he had written.
In his novels, Saroyan portrayed a fundamental goodness in all of his characters. His work was frequently based on his own childhood, and boys are often his main characters. The central figure in the stories of My Name Is Aram is a young Armenian-American boy, and his 1943 novel, The Human Comedy, featured a 14-year-old boy whose older brother has left to fight in World War II. Others of his novels are: Rock Wagram (1951), The Laughing Matter (1953).
Saroyan also wrote several collections of brief essays: Here Comes, There Goes You Know Who (1961), Not Dying (1963), Days of Life and Death and Escape to the Moon (1971), and Places Where I've Done Time (1975)
Saroyan married Carol Marcus, and the couple had two children, a son and a daughter. The couple divorced, remarried, then divorced again. Saroyan fell into deep debt in the 1960s and was plagued by tax problems. He wrote as much as possible to regain his financial footing, and much of his later work received mixed reviews. He died in Fresno on 18 May 1981.
1907 Ramón Magsaysay Phillipines, statesman (US Legion
1903 Sir Bernard Lovell England, radio astronomer, founded Jodrell Bank
1899 Lynn Riggs, writer, her book Green Grow the Lilacs was adapted by Rodgers and Hammerstein to become Oklahoma.
1880 Queen Mother Wilhelmina Netherlands (1890-1948)
1880 Tietze, mathematician
1878 Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, he would grow up to be a Russian general and leader of counter-revolutionary forces in Russia 1917-20.
1870 Maria Montessori, Italian educator. She developed a theory of teaching which emphasized a reinforcement of initiative, and a freedom of movement for the child. She co-authored The Montessori Method
1852 Gaetano Previati, Italian artist who died on 21 June 1920.
1844 Mary Gray Phelps, would grow up to be Mrs. Ward, under the pseudonym Elizabeth Stuart Phelps wrote Poetic Studies (PHELPS ONLINE: )
1840 Giovassi Verga, novelista
Nato a Catania, fu il massimo esponente del verismo [e del verghismo?]. La sua prima formazione romantico-risorgimentale si svolse a Catania, dove abbandonando gli studi giuridici, decise di dedicarsi esclusivamente alla letteratura. Trasferitosi a Firenze nel 1865 compose i suoi primi romanzi Una peccatrice e Storia di una Capinera. Successivamente a Milano frequentò l'ambiente degli Scapigliati, rappresentando in modo fortemente critico il mondo aristocratico-borghese (Eva, 1873; Tigre Reale, 1873; Eros,1875).
In seguito alla scoperta del naturalismo francese matura la sua svolta decisiva verso il verismo che sarà segnato dai racconti e dai romanzi di ambiente siciliano (Vita nei campi, 1880 I Malavoglia, 1881; Novelle rusticane, 1883; Mastro don Gesualdo, 1889). Lo scrittore crede nel progresso ma si interessa ai vinti e ai deboli; la sua è una visione della vita tragicamente pessimistica che si pone in antitesi con l'ottimismo imperante nei suoi tempi.
Rappresenta un mondo di primitivi in lotta con il destino avverso cui inesorabilmente soccombono quando si staccano dalla religione, dalla famiglia e dal lavoro. Il linguaggio verghiano è arditamente innovatore: dando spazio al linguaggio dialettale riesce a raggiungere effetti di grandiosa coralità. Alla produzione narrativa si accompagnò quella teatrale, connotata sempre da una intensa drammaticità (Cavalleria rusticana, 1884; La lupa, 1884; In portineria, 1885; Dal tuo al mio, 1903). Lo scrittore muore nella sua città natale nel 1922.
Tutte le novelle (same zipped)
/ [all the following are zipped text:
I Malavoglia _ Scritto nel 1881 è il primo romanzo dell'incompiuto ciclo "I vinti", ed è considerato il capolavoro della letteratura verista. Verga supera il bozzettismo veristico per contribuire in modo fondamentale alla creazione di una tradizione narrativa realistica in Italia. Nella storia del declino dei Malavoglia egli dà una rappresentazione lucidamente critica della crisi di una civiltà arcaica investita da nuove, spietate leggi economiche. Il suo attaccamento ai valori più autentici di quella civiltà (la famiglia patriarcale, la casa del nespolo) si accompagna alla condanna dei suoi colpevoli ritardi; ma su tutto domina un pessimismo di fondo, un senso di immobilità e immutabilità dei destini sociali e umani che è in netto contrasto con gli ottimismi trionfanti della borghesia italiana postunitaria.
Mastro Don Gesualdo _ Edito nel 1889, seconda parte dell'incompiuto ciclo de "I vinti", Mastro don Gesualdo ha sicuramente un respiro più ampio rispetto a I Malavoglia. Il tema è quello dell'alienazione borghese, affrontato in diversi quadri che raccontano l'ascesa sociale, e l'umiliazione, del protagonista, anch'esso alla fine "vinto" nonostante il suo lavoro di una vita ed i denari accumulati.
Storia di una capinera _ È la triste storia di una giovane, avviata controvoglia dal padre al convento. Scritto in forma epistolare, racconta l'angoscia per una reclusione innaturale, l'innamoramento ed infine la follia della protagonista.
Una peccatrice _ Un romanzo giovanile del Verga (il suo primo racconto lungo: è del 1886). D'ispirazione romantica, più tardi ripudiato dall'autore, che nel 1890 tentò di opporsi alla ristampa.
Eros Eva Il marito di Elena Tigre Reale Rose Caduche La Lupa Cavalleria Rusticana
1830 Charles Nordhoff, author. NORDHOFF ONLINE:
Health, Pleasure, and Residence, For
Health, Pleasure, and Residence (another site), Northern
California, Oregon, and the Sandwich Islands
1817 Theude Grönland, German artist who died on 15 April 1876.
1811 Théophile Gautier, Tarbes, France, poet, novelist and author of Art for Art's Sake. GAUTIER ONLINE: (en français): [text] Loeuvre fantastique. I, Nouvelles Loeuvre fantastique. II, Romans La comédie de la mort Le capitaine Fracasse Albertus ou L'âme et le péché /(en français, images de pages): La comédie de la mort Mademoiselle de Maupin Les jeunes~France : romans goguenards ; suivis de Contes humoristiques Le capitaine Fracasse. Tome premier Tome second // (in English translation) Captain Fracasse
1768 Barraband Jacques Barraban, French artist who died on 01 October 1809.
0161 Commode, empereur romain pas du tout commode. Il se signalera par un comportement exécrable et finira assassiné sans laisser de regret.
0012 Gaius Caesar Germanicus "Caligula", 3rd Roman emperor (37~41 AD), very unpopular with ancient historians, and with good reason, as he was cruel and unpredictable, some say mad. Most people were relieved when he (together with his wife and daughter) was murdered by his Praetorian guards on 24 January 41. L'empereur romain Caligula, qui se signalera par un comportement éxécrable et finira assassiné sans laisser de regret.