CURRENT UPDATES: TODAY2 TO TODAY+2
| On a July 21:
2000 Special Counsel John C. Danforth concluded "with 100% certainty" that the US federal government was innocent of wrongdoing in the siege that killed 80 members of the Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas, in 1993.
2000 Group of Eight leaders met for an economic summit on the Japanese island of Okinawa, where President Clinton also sought to soothe long-simmering tensions over the huge US military presence.
1991 Jordan became the fourth Arab country to sign on to a U.S.-backed
Middle East peace conference. Secretary of State James A. Baker III met
with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, trying to persuade the Israelis
to agree to the talks.
1983 Polish government ends 19 months of martial law
1983 Lowest air temperature ever observed on Earth: 89ºC at the Soviet Vostok station in Antarctica.
1980 Draft registration began in the United States for 19- and 20-year-old men.
1980 Jean-Claude Droyer climbs the Eiffel Tower in 2 hrs 18 mins (???)
1978 World's strongest dog, 80-kg St Bernard, pulls 2909-kg load 27 m
1969 Neil Armstrong steps on the Moon at 2:56:15 AM (GMT). Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin blasted off from the moon aboard the lunar module.
1965 Pakistan, Iran & Turkey sign Regional Co-Operation pact
1960 The country of Katanga forms in Africa
1959 1st atomic powered merchant ship, Savannah, christened,
1944 U.S. Army and Marine forces land on Guam in the Marianas.
1941 France accepts Japan's demand for military control of Indochina.
1940 Soviet Union annexes Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
1934 45ºC, near Gallipolis, Ohio (state record)
1904 Camille Jenatzy sets world auto speed record at 105.88 km/h
1900 Pope Leo XIII encyclical to the Greek-Melkite rite
1898 Spain cedes Guam to US
1886 The cardinal's hat is conferred upon Elzear Alexandre Taschereau, 66, archbishop of Québec. He is the first Canadian to be made a cardinal.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1861 In the first major battle of the Civil War, Confederate forces repel an attempt by the Union Army to turn their flank in Virginia. The battle becomes known by the Confederates as Manassas, while the Union calls it Bull Run.
1846 Mormons found 1st English settlement in Calif (San Joaquin Valley)
1831 Belgium gains independence from Netherland, Leopold I made King of the Belgians.
1798 Battle of the Pyramids. Napoléon Bonaparte defeats the Arab Mamelukes, becoming the master of Egypt.
1773 Clement XIV issues the brief, 'Dominus ac redemptor noster,' officially dissolving the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). This politically-based suppression afterward left conspicuous gaps in Catholic education and foreign missions.
1718 The Turkish threat to Europe is eliminated with the signing of the Treaty of Passarowitz between Austria, Venice and the Ottoman Empire.
1711 Russia and Turkey sign the Treaty of Pruth, ending the year-long Russo-Turkish War.
1667 The Peace of Breda ends the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1664-1667) and cedes Dutch New Amsterdam to the English.
1588 English fleet defeats Spanish armada
1403 Henry IV defeats the Percys in the Battle of Shrewsbury in England.
0230 St Pontianus begins his reign as Pope
| Deaths which
occurred on a July 21:
2002 Ira J. Salone, 62; Belinda Jackson, 48; Marisha Jackson, 14; Shanae Jackson, 10; Tevin Jackson, 3; and Tyler Jackson, 3, in a minivan, and Kyong Leingang, 55, woman (from Addison) alone driving a sport-utility vehicle which crosses into the path of the minivan and crashes head-on at about 17:45 on Interstate 20 in Gregg County in east Texas. The people in the minivan wore from Shreveport; their lone survivor, Tatyana Jackson, 3, the third triplet, is critically injured in the head.
2002 Six coal miners by a methane explosion in the Dnipropetrovsk region of the Ukraine. About 300 Ukrainian miners in 2001 and almost 150 in the first half of 2002 have been killed in accidents in the mines, plagued by poor working conditions, a lax regard for safety rules and lack of funds for modernization. In 2000, at least 80 miners were killed and seven injured when a methane gas explosion tore through the Barakova coal mine in the eastern town of Luhansk in the country's worst mining disaster since independence in 1991. Ukraine's mines are expensive and dangerous to operate, but politicians fear even greater social costs of closing pits which employ 450'000 persons at 193 mines in areas with few other jobs.
1984 James Fixx, 43, runner and author, of a heart attack while following his own aerobics program by jogging
1976 1st outbreak of "Legionnaire's Disease" kills 29 in Phila
1972 In New York, 57 murders occur in 24 hours
1972 Jigme Dori Wangchuck king of Bhutan
1966 Frank, mathematician.
1964 Jean Fautrier, French artist born on 16 May 1898.
1957 Bernard Spooner US inventor of bulletproof jacket.
1948 Arshile Gorky commits suicide, cancerous, his neck broken in a June 1948 automobile accident, and lastly his wife has just left him. He was a US painter important as the direct link between the European Surrealists and the US Abstract Expressionists. He was born Vosdanig Manoog Adoian in 1904 in Turkish Armenia, and had emigrated to the US in 1920. MORE ON GORKY AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Calendars The Liver is the Cock's Comb The Artist and His Mother Abstraction With Artist's Materials In the Garden Mannequin
1944 Hitler assassination plotters and suspects, as revenge bloodbath starts ^top^
Adolf Hitler announces on radio that the attempt on his life has failed and that "accounts will be settled." Hitler had survived the bomb blast that was meant to take his life. He had suffered punctured eardrums, some burns and minor wounds, but nothing that would keep him from regaining control of the government and finding the rebels.
In fact, the coup d'etat that was to accompany the assassination of Hitler was put down in a mere 11 ˝ hours. In Berlin, Army Major Otto Remer, believed to be apolitical by the conspirators and willing to carry out any orders given him, was told that the Fuhrer was dead and that he, Remer, was to arrest Joseph Goebbels, Minister of Propaganda. But Goebbels had other news for Remer-Hitler was alive. And he proved it, by getting the leader on the phone (the rebels had forgotten to cut the phone lines). Hitler then gave Remer direct orders to put down any army rebellion and to follow only his orders or those of Goebbels or Himmler. Remer let Goebbels go.
The SS then snapped into action, arriving in Berlin, now in chaos, just in time to convince many high German officers to remain loyal to Hitler. Arrests, torture sessions, executions, and suicides followed. Count Claus von Stauffenberg, the man who actually planted the explosive in the room with Hitler and who had insisted to his co-conspirators that "the explosion was as if a 15-millimeter shell had hit. No one in that room can still be alive." But it was Stauffenberg who would not be alive for much longer; he was shot dead by a pro-Hitler officer the very day of the attempt. The plot was completely undone.
Now Hitler had to restore calm and confidence to the German civilian population. At 01:00, Hitler's voice broke through the radio airwaves: "I am unhurt and well…. A very small clique of ambitious, irresponsible…and stupid officers had concocted a plot to eliminate me…. It is a gang of criminal elements which will be destroyed without mercy. I therefore give orders now that no military authority…is to obey orders from this crew of usurpers…. This time we shall settle account with them in the manner to which we National Socialists are accustomed." -
1937 Elliott, mathematician
1925 Giovanni Frattini, mathematician
1873 Codazzi, mathematician
1888 Henri de Braekeleer, Belgian painter born in 1840. LINKS
1886 Carl Theodor von Piloty, German artist born on 01 October 1826.
1761 Louis Galloche, French artist born on 24 August 1670.
| Births which occurred on
a July 21:
1933 John Gardner scholar/writer (Grendel, Sunlight Dialogues)
1926 John Leech, mathematician who is best known for the Leech lattice which is important in the theory of finite simple groups.
1911 Marshall McLuhan Canada, communication theorist, writer (The Medium is the Message)
1885 Frances Parkinson Keyes novelist (Dinner at Antoine)
1875 Oskar Moll, German artist who died in 1947.
1872 Victor Marais-Milton, French artist who died in 1968.
1861 Slaught, mathematician.
1856 Rudolf Otto von Ottenfeld, Italian (mamma mia!!!) artist who died on 26 July 1913.
1854 Albert Gustaf Aristides Edelfet, Swedish French artist who died in 1905.
1800 Ignaz Raffalt, Austrian artist who died on 06 July 1857.
1849 Robert Woodward, mathematician
1848 Emil Weyr, mathematician who worked in descriptive and projective geometry.
1816 Paul Julius Baron von Reuter founded Reuters news service
1804 Victor Schoelcher Guadeloupe, abolished French slavery.
1669 Hendrik Govaerts, Flemish artist who died on 10 February 1720.
1620 Jean Picard, mathematician.
1611 Jan van Balen, Flemish artist who died on 13 March 1654.