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On a 24 July:

James A. Traficant, 61, Democrat of Ohio in his 9th term, becomes the second member of the US House of Representatives to be expelled (420-to-1: a two-thirds majority was required)[usually a member who expects to be expelled avoids it by resigning]. After a 2-1/2 month trial, on 11 April 2002 he was convicted in federal court for trafficking in bribery, kickbacks and tax evasion, and will be sentenced on 30 July 2002 to 8 years in prison. Traficant was first elected to Congress in 1984 after successfully defending himself against federal charges that he had accepted money from organized crime while sheriff for four years. The last House member expelled (in 1980) was Rep. Michael Myers, a Pennsylvania Democrat caught taking bribes from FBI agents posing as Arab sheiks during the FBI's "Abscam" probe. The lone vote against expulsion is cast by Calfornia Democrat Gary Condit, 54, who had troubles of his own when Chandra Levy, 24, an intern wtih which he was having an affair disappeared (she was later found to have been killed on 01 May 2001).
[photo: Traficant addresses the House just before the expulsion vote >]
2002 Crooked Adelphia executives are arrested      ^top^
      John Rigas, 77, founder (in 1952 with $300) of Adelphia Communications Corporation, his sons Timothy Rigas, 46, a former chief financial officer, and Michael Rigas, 48, a former executive vice president of operations, are arrested at 06:00 and released on $10 million each. James Brown, 40, former vice president of finance, and Michael Mulcahey, 45, former director of internal reporting of treasury functions, are also arrested. In June 2000 all five had resigned from Adelphia, which filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.
      Each of the five is charged with one count of conspiracy, one count of securities fraud, four counts of wire fraud and two counts of bank fraud. If convicted, each defendant faces a possible maximum sentence of five years in prison and a $250'000 fine on each of the conspiracy and wire fraud counts; 10 years and a $1 million fine on the securities fraud count; and 30 years and a $1 million fine on each of the bank fraud counts.
      The former executives were accused by the SEC of hiding $2.3 billion in Adelphia liabilities in off-balance-sheet entities controlled by family members. The SEC also accused the company of fraudulent misrepresentations to hide extensive self-dealing by the Rigas. The Rigas family used more than $252 million in Adelphia funds to pay margin calls against loans the family had received. John Rigas received more than $67 million in undisclosed loans from Adelphia, and in 2001 and 2002 he also received undisclosed cash payments from the company of at least $1 million per month. Adelphia owned two condominium apartments in Manhattan, of which John Rigas' son-in-law had exclusive use of the apartments without paying rent from 1998 through May 2002.
      Adelphia's new management said it supported the government's actions and said it has cooperated with the SEC and the US Attorneys' investigations since it took over.
2000 President Clinton continued to mediate the Camp David Mideast summit, meeting with Israeli, Palestinian and US negotiators.
2000 Michael Stone, a pro-British paramilitary member, was freed from prison as part of Northern Ireland's 1998 peace accord after serving eleven years of a life sentence for murder.
1998 Energy company buys Water company      ^top^
      Electricity and gas titan from Houston, Enron Corporation signs a deal to acquire British-based Wessex Water, PLC, for $2.2 billion. According to company officials, the deal signals Enron's first move towards creating a global water subsidiary;
      Wessex Water was slated to be the crowning jewel of the new concern, which would focus on developing water distribution systems and treatment plants in Asia, Europe and Latin America. In the wake of the deal, Enron's eyes were clearly fixed on a handsome payday in the not-too distant future. As company chief Kenneth Lay noted, the "worldwide water market" was quite lucrative (company figures pegged the field's worth at $300 billion), but sparsely populated; the situation presented "tremendous opportunities for future growth as the...industry moved toward privatization and consolidation." Gazing into his crystal ball, Lay predicted that the acquisition of Wessex would swiftly push the subsidiary to the point where no longer relied on Enron's coffers to maintain its daily operations.
1998 Senate approves ban on Internet gambling. The government was waging a battle against illegal betting and overseas operators of online casinos. But the bill expired before the House voted on it. One year later, the Senate again passed a similar measure, the Internet Gambling Prohibition Act of 1999, slated for debate in the House during the year 2000.
1997 AOL keeps phone numbers from telemarketers      ^top^
      America Online announces that it has changed a previously announced policy and would not give telemarketers the phone numbers of its 8.5 million customers. Instead, AOL said it would use its own internal telemarketers to provide sales services for marketing companies that contracted with them. AOL members had created an outcry when the company announced it would provide subscribers' home phone numbers.
1997 Digital Equipment Company files antitrust charges against chipmaker Intel, alleging that the company used monopoly power to harm Digital by demanding the return of certain technical documents. Intel had filed charges against Digital in May seeking the return of the documents.
1996 Internet credit card security. MasterCard and GTE announced a credit card security plan similar to a plan announced two days earlier by Visa International and VeriSign. The plan, named the "CyberTrust Service," is based on digital certificates protecting users from fraudulent use of their cards.
1995 A Palestinian suicide bomber killed himself and five others in a Tel Aviv suburb in Israel.
1997, the same Scottish scientists who produced Dolly the cloned sheep announced they had cloned a sheep with human genes.
1998, a gunman opened fire at the Capitol in Washington, D.C., killing two police officers and wounding a tourist. Police shot the gunman, who survived and was later charged with murder.
1993 Russia's central bank announces a drastic reform of the monetary system, saying all banknotes issued up to the end of 1992 would be withdrawn from circulation.
1991 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced a final agreement on a treaty designed to preserve the Soviet federation while giving more power to the republics.
1991 U of Manchester scientist announce finding a planet outside of the solar system
1990 Irak envía 30'000 soldados a su frontera con Kuwait, mientras EE.UU. decreta el estado de alerta de su flota en aguas del Golfo Pérsico.
1989 the Exxon Corporation estimated that its cleanup of the Alaskan oil spill would cost $1.28 billion.
1987 the US-escorted and re-flagged Kuwaiti oil tanker Bridgeton is damaged by an Iranian mine (first such incident in the Persian Gulf).
1987 Un Congreso Universal de Esperantistas conmemora en Varsovia el primer centenario de esta lengua, creada por el doctor polaco Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof.
1986 SF Federal jury convicts navy radioman Jerry Whitworth of espionage
1985 Gandhi signs peace accord with Sikh leader Harchand Singh Longowai
1983 Ride's ride ends: the Space Shuttle Challenger lands at Edwards Air Force Base, California, making Sally Ride the first American woman in space.
1979 El Congreso español aprueba el establecimiento del Tribunal Constitucional.
1976 Una nube de gas letal, la dioxina, escapada del complejo químico de ICMESA, causa una catástrofe ecológica en la localidad italiana de Seveso, cerca de Milán, afectando a los 15'000 habitantes de la localidad, que fueron evacuados con graves lesiones cutáneas.
1974 Konstantinos Karamanlis asume el cargo de primer ministro de Grecia, tras el abandono del general Phaedon Ghizikis, jefe del Gobierno de los coroneles.
1973 US Supreme Court rules against Nixon      ^top^
      Near the climax of the Watergate affair, the US Supreme Court orders President Richard M. Nixon to turn over subpoenaed recordings of official White House conversations to special prosecutor Leon Jaworski. The high court rules that Nixon's claims to presidential privilege do not apply to evidence required in prosecuting Watergate-related crimes.
      The Watergate affair began when a break-in at the Watergate Hotel by White House officials was uncovered by journalists and the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities. On 16 July 1973, a former White House aide brought the existence of the Watergate tapes to the attention of the Senate committee investigating Watergate, and, on 26 July, the recordings were subpoenaed. Nixon failed to comply with the subpoena, and, on 09 August, the Senate committee filed suit against the president. Finally, on October 23, Nixon agreed to turn over the tapes to a District of Columbia court, but when the recordings arrived, several of the key tapes were missing, and an eighteen-and-a-half-minute gap was discovered on another. The White House failed to satisfactorily explain the long silence during a key conversation between Nixon and White House staff member H. R. Haldeman, although an expert later testified that the gap had been caused by deliberate and repeated erasures.
      On24 July, the Supreme Court rejects Nixon's claims of executive privilege as unconstitutional, and order him to honor the special prosecutor's subpoenas. On 30 July, the day that the House Judiciary Committee voted the third of three articles of impeachment against him, Nixon finally sent the Watergate tapes to the Capitol. On 05 August, transcripts of the recordings were revealed, including a segment in which the president was heard instructing Haldeman to order the FBI to halt the Watergate investigation. Four days later, Richard M. Nixon became the first president in US history to resign. On 16 September he was pardoned from any criminal charges by his successor, President Gerald Ford.
     Washington Post Story: President Refuses to Turn Over Tapes; Ervin Committee, Cox Issue Subpoenas Action Sets Stage for Court Battle on Powers Issue
1972 Jigme Singye Wangchuk, 16, becomes king of Bhutan.
1969 First men on the Moon are back      ^top^
      At 12:51 EDT, Apollo 11, the US spacecraft that had taken the first astronauts to the surface of the moon, safely returns to earth. Eight years before, speaking before a joint session of Congress, President John F. Kennedy had made a famous appeal to Congress and America. "I believe this nation," Kennedy said, "should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth." At the time, the United States was still trailing the Soviet Union in space developments, and Cold War-era America welcomed Kennedy's bold proposal.
      In 1966, after five years of work by an international team of scientists and engineers, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted the first unmanned Apollo mission, testing the structural integrity of the proposed launch vehicle and spacecraft combination. Then, on 27 January 1967, tragedy struck when a fire broke out during a manned launch pad test of the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn rocket. Three astronauts were killed in the fire. Despite the setback, NASA and its thousands of employees forged ahead, and in October of 1968, Apollo 7, the first manned Apollo mission, orbited Earth and successfully tested many of the sophisticated systems needed to conduct a moon journey and landing. In December of the same year, Apollo 8 took three astronauts around the dark side of the moon, and in March of 1969, Apollo 9 tested the lunar module for the first time while in earth orbit. Then in May, the three astronauts of Apollo 10 took the first complete Apollo spacecraft around the moon in a dry run for the scheduled July landing mission.
      At 09:32. on 16 July, with the world watching, Apollo 11 took off from Kennedy Space Center with astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, Jr., and Michael Collins aboard. After seventy-six hours, Apollo 11 entered into a lunar orbit on 19 July. The next day, at 13:46, the lunar module Eagle, manned by Armstrong and Aldrin, separated from the command module, where Collins remained. Two hours later, the Eagle began its descent to the lunar surface, and at 16:18 the craft touched down on the southwestern edge of the Sea of Tranquility. Armstrong immediately radioed to Mission Control in Houston, Texas, a famous message, "The Eagle has landed."
      At 22:39, five hours ahead of the original schedule, Armstrong opened the hatch of the lunar module. Seventeen minutes later, at 22:56, Armstrong spoke the following words to millions listening at home: "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." A moment later, he stepped of the lunar module's ladder, becoming the first human to walk on the surface of the moon. "Buzz" Aldrin joined him on the moon's surface at 23:11, and together they took photographs of the terrain, planted a US flag, ran a few simple scientific tests, and spoke with President Richard M. Nixon via Houston.
By 01:11 on 21 July, both astronauts were back in the lunar module and the hatch was closed. The two men slept that night on the surface of the moon, and at 13:54 the Eagle began its ascent back to the command module. Among the items left on the surface of the moon was a plaque that read: "Here men from the planet Earth first set foot on the Moon — July 1969 A.D — We came in peace for all mankind." At 17:35, Armstrong and Aldrin successfully docked and rejoined Collins and at 00:56 on 22 July, Apollo 11 began its journey home, safely splashing down in the Pacific Ocean on 24 July.
       There would be five more successful lunar landing missions, and one unplanned lunar flyby, Apollo 13. The last men to walk on the moon in the 20th century, astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt of the Apollo 17 mission, left the lunar surface on 14 December 1972.
      Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin y Michael Collins regresan a la Tierra en el Apolo 11, tras haberse posado sobre la Luna y haber andado sobre su superficie por primera vez en la historia.
1967 Charles de Gaulle says "Vive le Québec libre!" — Dans allocution prononcée au balcon de l’Hôtel de Ville de Montréal, le général de Gaulle dit: “Vive Montréal, vive le Québec, vive le Québec libre, vive le Canada français, vive la France!”.
1967 Race riot in Cambridge Maryland
1965 North Vietnam fires missiles at US bombers.      ^top^
      In the air war over Vietnam, four F-4C Phantom jets escorting a formation of US bombers on a raid over munitions manufacturing facilities at Kang Chi, 90 km northwest of Hanoi, are fired at from an unknown launching site. It was the first time the enemy had launched antiaircraft missiles at US aircraft. One plane was destroyed and the other three damaged. The presence of ground-to-air antiaircraft missiles represented a rapidly improving air defense capability for the North Vietnamese. As the war progressed, North Vietnam, supplied by China and the Soviet Union, would fashion a very effective and integrated air defense system that proved to be a formidable challenge to American flyers conducting missions over North Vietnam.
1961 Beginning of a trend, a US commercial plane is hijacked to Cuba.
1959 "Kitchen debate" in Moscow      ^top^
      The previous day Vice President Richard M. Nixon flew from New York to Moscow to open the US Trade and Cultural Fair in Sokolniki Park, organized as a goodwill gesture by the USS.R. Arriving in record time the same day, he meets with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, 65, at the Kremlin on 24 July.
      Later that day, in front of replica of a suburban American kitchen, Nixon and Khrushchev engage in an impromptu debate about the merits and disadvantages of capitalism and communism. Watched by applauding reporters and Soviet officials, the informal exchange came to be known as the "Kitchen Debate." With American television cameras rolling, Khrushchev makes Nixon promise that his words will not be censored or miscommunicated when the film was shown in the United States. Nixon assures him that they will not, and then asks the Soviet leader to return the favor.
      On 01 August, Khrushchev obliged, allowing Nixon to speak on Soviet national television. In an event unprecedented in the USS.R., Nixon was heard criticizing Communist policy while warning the Soviet people they would live in tension and fear if Khrushchev attempted to propagate communism in countries outside the Soviet Union.
      Nixon's trip to Moscow helped solidify his reputation as a tough and capable US leader, and the Kitchen Debate was a definitive moment in the Cold War. In September, Khrushchev traveled to the United States and met with President Dwight D. Eisenhower. In May of 1972, Nixon returned to the Soviet Union as president.
      During the grand opening ceremony of the American National Exhibition in Moscow, Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev engage in a heated debate about capitalism and communism in the middle of a model kitchen set up for the fair. The so-called "kitchen debate" became one of the most famous episodes of the Cold War. In late 1958, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed to set up national exhibitions in each other's nation as part of their new emphasis on cultural exchanges. The Soviet exhibition opened in New York City in June 1959; the US exhibition opened in Sokolniki Park in Moscow in July. On 24 July before the Moscow exhibition was officially opened to the public, Vice President Nixon served as a host for a visit by Soviet leader Khrushchev.
      As Nixon led Khrushchev through the American exhibition, the Soviet leader's famous temper began to flare. When Nixon demonstrated some new American color television sets, Khrushchev launched into an attack on the so-called "Captive Nations Resolution" passed by the US Congress just days before. The resolution condemned the Soviet control of the "captive" peoples of Eastern Europe and asked all Americans to pray for their deliverance. After denouncing the resolution, Khrushchev then sneered at the US technology on display, proclaiming that the Soviet Union would have the same sort of gadgets and appliances within a few years. Nixon, never one to shy away from a debate, goaded Khrushchev by stating that the Russian leader should "not be afraid of ideas. After all, you don't know everything." The Soviet leader snapped at Nixon, "You don't know anything about communism — except fear of it." With a small army of reporters and photographers following them, Nixon and Khrushchev continued their argument in the kitchen of a model home built in the exhibition. With their voices rising and fingers pointing, the two men went at each other. Nixon suggested that Khrushchev's constant threats of using nuclear missiles could lead to war, and he chided the Soviet for constantly interrupting him while he was speaking. Taking these words as a threat, Khrushchev warned of "very bad consequences."
      Perhaps feeling that the exchange had gone too far, the Soviet leader then noted that he simply wanted "peace with all other nations, especially America." Nixon rather sheepishly stated that he had not "been a very good host." The "kitchen debate" was front-page news in the United States the next day. For a few moments, in the confines of a "modern" kitchen, the diplomatic gloves had come off and America and the Soviet Union had verbally jousted over which system was superior — communism or capitalism. As with so many Cold War battles, however, there was no clear winner — except perhaps for the US media, which had a field day with the dramatic encounter.
1952 Pres Truman settles 53-day steel strike. The Supreme Court had found unconstitutional his seizure of the steel industry, in Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer.
1950 The US Fifth Air Force relocates from Japan to Korea.
1948 Soviets blockades Berlin from the west
1943 II Guerra Mundial: los aliados inician grandes bombardeos aéreos contra Hamburgo, que durarán seis días.
1943 El Gran Consejo Fascista italiano aprueba la retirada de Mussolini y pide que el poder vuelva a la Corona.
1943 The US submarine Tinosa fires 15 torpedoes at a lone Japanese merchant ship, none detonate.
1942 The Soviet city of Rostov is captured by German troops.
1941 The US government denounces Japanese actions in Indochina.
1937 Alabama drops charges against 5 Blacks accused of rape in Scottsboro
1936 Guerra Civil española: La Junta de Defensa Nacional dispone que Franco asuma el mando del Ejército de Marruecos y del Sur de España, y Mola, el del Ejército del Norte.
1929 Dimite el primer ministro francés, Henri Poincaré, por motivos de salud. Le sustituye Aristide Briand.
1929 Pres Hoover proclaims Kellogg-Briand Pact (signed 27 August 1928) which renounces war
1928 Se da por terminado oficialmente el movimiento del general César Augusto Sandino contra la intervención estadounidense en Nicaragua, pero la lucha guerrillera no terminó.
1925 Scopes guilty of teaching evolution in a Tn HS, fined $100 & costs
1923 Se firma el Tratado de Lausana entre los Aliados en la Primera Guerra Mundial y Turquía, por el que se revisa el Tratado de Sèvres y se devuelve a Turquía Tracia Oriental y sus territorios en Asia Menor. — The Treaty of Lausanne, which settled the boundaries of modern Turkey, was concluded in Switzerland.between the Allied Powers and Turkey.
1917 Mata-Hari comparece ante un tribunal militar, que la condena a muerte por espionaje.
1914 Friday : in the aftermath of the June 28 assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand:      ^top^
  • Pasic returns to Belgrade at 05:00.
  • Giesl and staff begin burning sensitive diplomatic papers and cipher books. They are already preparing for their departure from Belgrade on tomorrow's evening train.
  • Prince Alexander urgently wires the Russian Czar for assistance and guidance in the matter.
  • Russia advises Pasic to "proceed with extreme caution." [view text of the advice]
  • Serbia makes the contents of the ultimatum public in a hope to gain public support. The world is aghast at the contents. They ask for the impossible. [view text of the ultimatum]
  • The Kaiser hears about the ultimatum from his yacht's radio officer who read it in the Norwegian newspaper.
  • 1912 Mongolia se convierte en protectorado ruso.
    1911 Hallazgo de la ciudadela inca de Machu Picchu, en el Cuzco, por el estadounidense Hiram Bingham.
    1901 O. Henry released from prison      ^top^
          William Sydney Porter, 38, otherwise known as O. Henry, is released from prison, after serving three years in jail for embezzlement from a bank in Austin, Texas. To escape imprisonment, Porter had fled the authorities and hidden in Honduras, but returned when his wife, still in the US, was diagnosed with a terminal illness. He went to jail and began writing stories to support his young daughter while he was in prison.
          After his release, Porter moved to New York and worked for New York World, writing one short story a week from December 1903 to January 1906. In 1904, his first story collection, Cabbages and Kings, depicted fantastic characters against exotic Honduran backgrounds. His second, The Four Million (1906), contained one of his most beloved stories, The Gift of the Magi, about a poor couple who each sacrifice their most valuable possession to buy a gift for the other. Both The Four Million and The Trimmed Lamp (1907) explored the lives of the multitude of New York in their daily routines and searchings for romance and adventure
          The Heart of the West (1907) presented accurate and fascinating tales of the Texas range. Then in rapid succession came The Voice of the City (1908), The Gentle Grafter (1908), Roads of Destiny (1909), Options (1909), Strictly Business (1910), and Whirligigs (1910). Whirligigs contains perhaps Porter's funniest story, The Ransom of Red Chief.
          Despite his popularity, O. Henry's final years were marred by ill-health, a desperate financial struggle, and alcoholism. A second marriage in 1907 was unhappy. After his death three more collected volumes appeared: Sixes and Sevens (1911), Rolling Stones (1912), and Waifs and Strays: 12 Stories (1917). Later seven fugitive stories and poems, O. Henryana (1920), Letters to Lithopolis (1922), and two collections of his early work on the Houston Post, Postscripts (1923) and O. Henry Encore (1939), were published. Foreign translations and adaptations for other art forms, including films and television, attest his universal application and appeal.
         O. Henry specialized in stories about everyday people, often ending with an unexpected twist. Despite the enormous popularity of the nearly 300 stories he published, he led a difficult life, struggling with financial problems and alcoholism until his death on 05 June 1910. [The Gift of the Magi: another site] (O HENRY ONLINE:)
    1877 1st time federal troops are used to combat strikers
    1871 Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla, progresista, es elegido presidente del Gobierno de España.
    1870 1st trans-US rail service begins
    1866 Tennessee becomes 1st Confederate state readmitted to Union
    1864 Second Battle of Kernstown, Virginia
    1864 Battle of Kernstown, Virginia      ^top^
          Confederate General Jubal Early defeats Union troops under General George Crook to keep the Shenandoah Valley clear of Yankees. On 13 June 1864, General Robert E. Lee sent Early north from Petersburg to clear the Shenandoah of Union troops and relieve pressure on his own beleaguered force. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia had been pinned in Petersburg after a bloody six-week campaign with General Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Potomac. The campaign mimicked that of General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's in 1862, when the Confederates successfully relieved pressure on Richmond and held off several Union armies in the Valley. Early moved into Maryland in July and even threatened Washington before moving back up the Potomac and into the valley with Yankee troops in pursuit. On 23 July, Early's troops engaged the Union force under Crook near Kernstown, with no clear victory for either side. The next day, Early struck Crook with his entire force and found the Federals in a vulnerable position. The Yankees were routed and fled back down the valley. Early's victory led to significant changes in the Union approach to the Shenandoah Valley. President Abraham Lincoln urged Grant to secure the area once and for all. Grant sent General Philip Sheridan to command the district in early August, and in the fall Sheridan dealt a series of defeats to Early and pacified the valley.
    1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues.
    1847 Mormons settle in Salt Lake valley.      ^top^
          After 17 months and many miles of travel, Brigham Young leads 148 Mormon pioneers into Utah's Valley of the Great Salt Lake. Gazing over the parched earth of the remote location, Young declares, "This is the place," and the pioneers began preparations for the thousands of Mormon migrants who would follow. Seeking religious and political freedom, the Mormons began planning their great migration from the east after the murder of Joseph Smith, the Christian sect's founder and first leader. Joseph Smith was born in Sharon, Vermont, in 1805. In 1827, he declared that he had been visited by a Christian angel named Moroni, who showed him an ancient Hebrew text that had been lost for 1500 years. The holy text, supposedly engraved on gold plates by a Native American prophet named Mormon in the fifth century A.D., told the story of Israelite peoples who had lived in America in ancient times. During the next few years, Smith dictated an English translation of this text to his wife and other scribes, and in 1830 The Book of Mormon was published. In the same year, Smith founded the Church of Christ — later known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints — in Fayette, New York. The religion rapidly gained converts, and Smith set up Mormon communities in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois.
          However, the Christian sect was also heavily criticized for its unorthodox practices, which included polygamy. In 1844, the threat of mob violence prompted Smith to call out a militia in the Mormon town of Nauvoo, Illinois. He was charged with treason by Illinois authorities and imprisoned with his brother Hyrum in the Carthage city jail. On 27 June 1844, an anti-Mormon mob with blackened faces stormed in and murdered the brothers. Two years later, Smith's successor, Brigham Young, led an exodus of persecuted Mormons from Nauvoo along the western wagon trails in search of a sanctuary in "a place on this earth that nobody else wants." The expedition, more than 10'000 pioneers strong, set up camp in present-day western Iowa while Young led a vanguard company across the Rocky Mountains to investigate Utah's Great Salt Lake Valley, an arid and isolated spot devoid of human presence. On 22 July 1947, most of the party reached the Great Salt Lake, but Young, delayed by illness, did not arrive until 24 July. Upon viewing the land, he immediately confirmed the valley to be the new homeland of the Latter-day Saints. Within days, Young and his companions began building the future Salt Lake City at the foot of the Wasatch Mountains. Later that year, Young rejoined the main body of pioneers in Iowa, who named him president and prophet of the church. Having formally inherited the authority of Joseph Smith, he led thousands of more Mormons to the Great Salt Lake in 1848. Other large waves of Mormon pioneers followed.
          By 1852, 16'000 Mormons had come to the valley, some in wagons and some dragging handcarts. After early difficulties, Salt Lake City began to flourish. By 1869, 80'000 Mormons had made the trek to their promised land. In 1850, President Millard Fillmore named Brigham Young the first governor of the US territory of Utah, and the territory enjoyed relative autonomy for several years. Relations became strained, however, when reports reached Washington that Mormon leaders were disregarding federal law and had publicly sanctioned the practice of polygamy. In 1857, President James Buchanan removed Young, who had 20 wives, from his position as governor and sent US Army troops to Utah to establish federal authority. Young died in Salt Lake City in 1877 and was succeeded by John Taylor as president of the church. Tensions between the territory of Utah and the federal government continued until Wilford Woodruff, the new president of the Mormon church, issued his Manifesto in 1890, renouncing the traditional practice of polygamy and reducing the domination of the church over Utah communities. Six years later, the territory of Utah entered the Union as the 45th state.
          After seventeen months and 2400 km, 148 Mormon pioneers under the leadership of Brigham Young reach Utah's Valley of the Great Salt Lake. Upon viewing the valley, Young declares "This is the place," and the pioneers begin preparations for the tens of thousands of Mormon migrants who would follow.
          Seeking religious and political freedom, the Mormons had begu planning their great migration from the east after the murder of Joseph Smith, the sect's founder and first leader. In 1823, Smith, born in Vermont in 1805, claimed that he been visited by an angel named Moroni who told him about an ancient Hebrew text that had lost been lost for 1500 years. The holy text, supposedly engraved on gold plates by a Native-American historian in the fourth century, related the story of Jewish peoples who had lived in America in ancient times.
          Over the next six years, Smith dictated an English translation of this text to his wife and other scribes, and in 1830, The Book of Mormon was published. In the same year, Smith founded the Church of Christ, later known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in Fayette, New York. The religion rapidly gained converts and Smith set up Mormon communities in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois.
          However, the sect was also heavily criticized for its unorthodox practices and, on 27 June, 1844, Smith and his brother were murdered in a jail cell by an anti-Mormon mob in Carthage, Illinois.
          Two years later, Smith's successor, Brigham Young, led the first exodus of persecuted Mormons from Nauvoo, Illinois, along the western wagon trails. In July of 1847, the 148 initial Mormon pioneers reached the Valley of the Great Salt Lake. By 1852, sixteen thousand Mormons had come to the valley. Young was named the first governor of the territory of Utah by US President Millard Fillmore, and the territory enjoyed relative autonomy for several years.
          However, in 1857, President James Buchanan removed Young, a polygamist with over twenty wives, from his position as governor, and sent US Army troops to Utah to establish federal law. Tensions between the territory of Utah and the federal government continued until Wilford Woodruff, the president of the Mormon church, issued his Manifesto in 1890, renouncing the traditional practice of polygamy, and reducing the domination of the church over Utah's political, economic, and social life. Six years later, the territory of Utah was granted statehood.
    1847 Rotary-type printing press patented by Richard March Hoe, NYC
    1832 First wagon train crossing of South Pass
          Benjamin Bonneville, an inept fur trader who some speculate may have actually been a spy, leads the first wagon train to cross the Rocky Mountains at Wyoming's South Pass. The motivations for Bonneville's western expeditions have always remained somewhat mysterious. A native of France, Bonneville came to the United States in 1803 at the age of seven. He later graduated from West Point, and he served at frontier posts in Arkansas, Texas, and Indian Territory. According to one view, Bonneville simply observed the rapid growth of the western fur trade at these posts and conceived a bold plan to mount his own fur trading expedition. However, others suggest Bonneville's true goal for the expedition may have been to serve as a Far Western spy for the US government. The circumstances of Bonneville's entry into the fur business were indeed somewhat odd. Despite his complete lack of experience as a mountain man, a group of Manhattan businessmen agreed to back his expedition with ample funds. It was also strange that a career military man should ask for, and quickly receive, a two-year leave of absence from the army to pursue a strictly commercial adventure.
          Bonneville began his expedition in May 1832, and that summer he and his men built an imposing trading post along Wyoming's Green River. Bonneville proved to be an incompetent fur trader, yet he seemed unconcerned about making a profit. By contrast, he seemed very interested in exploring the vast territory. Shortly after arriving in Wyoming, he mounted an expedition to the Columbia River country of Oregon, although he was well aware that the powerful British-owned Hudson's Bay Company dominated the region.
          On this day Bonneville led 110 men and 20 wagons across South Pass, the first-ever wagon crossing of that critical route connecting the existing United States to the northwest region of the continent. During the next two decades, thousands of American settlers would take their wagons across South Pass as they followed the Oregon Trail. In 1835, Bonneville returned to Washington, where President Andrew Jackson personally oversaw his reinstatement as a captain in the army. Some historians speculate that Bonneville might have actually been a spy for a US government, which was eager to collect information on the British strength in the Northwest. No historical records have ever been found to substantiate this speculation, though, and it is possible that Bonneville was simply an inept fur trader whose dreams exceeded his grasp.
    1824 Harrisburg Pennsylvanian newspaper publishes results of 1st public opinion poll. Clear lead for Andrew Jackson
    1823 Ley que declara libres a todos los esclavos de Chile y a todos los que pisen territorio nacional, con lo que este país es el primero de América que libera a los esclavos.
    1791 Robespierre expels all Jacobins opposed to the principles of the French Revolution.
    1783 In the Caucasus, Georgia becomes a protectorate of tsarist Russia
    1766 At Fort Ontario, Canada, Ottawa chief Pontiac and William Johnson sign a peace agreement.
    1704 Admiral George Rooke takes Gibraltar for Great Britain from Spain
    1701 Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac establishes Fort Ponchartrain for France on the future site of the city of Detroit, Michigan, in an attempt to halt the advance of the English into the western Great Lakes region.
    1683 1st settlers from Germany to US, leave aboard the Concord (not an airplane)
    1679 New Hampshire became a royal colony of the British crown.
    1628 Johannes Junius writes this letter to his daughter before his execution for witchcraft.

    1567 Mary Queen of Scots deposed      ^top^
          During her imprisonment at Lochleven Castle in Scotland, Mary Queen of Scots (Mary Stuart) is forced to abdicate in favor of her one-year-old son, later crowned as King James VI of Scotland. In June, Mary had been arrested by Scottish nobility outraged by her marriage to the earl of Bothwell, the alleged murderer of her second husband.Lord Darnley (they had been hostile to that second marriage too).
          On 14 December 1542, when just six days old, Mary became queen upon the death of her father, King James V. James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran (1515-75) was next in line to the throne, and he acted as regent and tutor to the young queen until 1554 when her French mother, Mary of Guise (1515-1560, James V's second wife) became regent.
         Hamilton promised Mary in marriage to Prince Edward of England (1537-53), son of Henry VIII (1491-1547), but the promise was revoked by the Scottish parliament, leading to war with England. The Scots were defeated at the Battle of Pinkie (1547), and Mary, when she was 6, was sent to be raised in safety at the French court. In 1558 she married the French dauphin, who became king François II (1544-60) of France in 1559 and died in the following year.
         François II's short reign, with his mother Catherine de Médicis (1519-89) as queen regent, was dominated by the struggle between the Guise family and the Protestants; a struggle which was also taking place in Scotland, where the Protestant nobles were in revolt against Mary of Guise. When François died in 1560, Catherine de Médicis remained queen regent during the minority of her second son Charles IX (1550-74). Catherine would in fact dominate Charles throughout his reign, persuading him to carry out the notorious St Bartholomew's Day Massacre of Huguenots on 24 August 1572.Mary Stuart by Clouet
         The widowed Mary remained in France as dowager queen for a few months until the death of her mother forced her to return to Scotland in 1561. There, the Protestant Lords of the Congregation, unhappy with Mary of Guise's regency, had effectively taken power, holding an illegal parliament in 1560 — the "year of Reformation" — which negated the authority of the Pope.
          Upon arriving in Scotland, Mary immediately met with protests and opposition from the Protestants, and this conflict characterised her troubled reign. Chief among the reformers was John Knox (1513-72), who had already expressed his disapproval of female monarchs in his charmingly titled 1558 tract, The First Blast Of The Trumpet Against The Monstrous Regiment Of Women. In 1561 George Buchanan was appointed as Mary's tutor. Buchanan was one of the most distinguished Latin stylists of the day, and was admired as such by Montaigne, who had studied under him in Bordeaux. However, Buchanan would ultimately prove to be one of Mary's most implacable enemies.
          Her chief minister was her half brother James Stuart, whom she soon afterward created earl of Moray.  In a Catholic ceremony on 29 July 1565, Mary married her Catholic cousin Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley (1545-67), whom she proclaimed Henry, King of Scots. The marriage aroused Protestant antagonism and was the signal for an insurrection by Moray and a Scottish noble family who hoped to be joined by the whole Protestant party. Their hope was disappointed, however, and the queen, taking the field in person, at once quelled the revolt.
          Her triumph was scarcely over when misunderstandings began to arise between her and Darnley. Not content with the title of king, he now demanded that the crown be secured to him for life and that, if the queen died without children, it should go to his heirs. Before Moray's rebellion Mary's secretary and adviser had been David Rizzio (also spelled Riccio; 1533-66), an Italian-born court favorite and a Roman Catholic. The king was now persuaded that Rizzio was the obstacle to his designs upon the crown. Acting on this belief, he entered into a formal compact with Moray; Lord Patrick Ruthven; James Douglas, 4th earl of Morton; and other leaders of the Protestant party.
          The result of this conspiracy was that in 1566, while pregnant by Darnley, Mary witnessed the brutal murder in her antechamber at Holyroodhouse of David Rizzio, who had in fact negotiated the terms of her marriage to Darnley. It has been suggested that it was Darnley's hope that by witnessing the crime, Mary would lose the child who prevented Darnley from reigning as absolute king in the event of Mary's own death. John Knox gave tacit support for Rizzio's murder in the hope that Mary would be overthrown, but when she remained in power he temporarily removed himself to England, returning to Edinburgh only after Mary's abdication.
          The child, the future James VI (of Scotland) and I (of England) , was born in 1566, and Darnley refused to attend the Catholic baptism at Stirling Castle. Divorce from the queen was openly discussed, but while Darnley was recovering from a bout of smallpox in early 1567, the house where he was sleeping was blown up with gunpowder, and Darnley was discovered strangled close by the scene of the explosion.. Blame fell upon Mary's new favorite, James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell (1535-78), and upon Mary herself (though her involvement has never been established).
          Bothwell was tried by a sham court which acquitted him; he then kidnapped Mary (meeting with no apparent resistance) and took her to Dunbar. She pardoned him, then married him in a Protestant ceremony after he had divorced his wife. The outraged Scottish nobles rose against her. Mary was able to lead an army against them, and although it was equal in number to the confederate army, it was visibly inferior in discipline. On 15 June 1567, Mary's forces were defeated at Carberry Hill, and she was forced to abandon Bothwell and surrender herself to the confederate lords.
          On 24 July imprisoned at Lochleven, she is prevailed upon to sign an act of abdication in favor of her one-year-old son, who would be crowned as James VI five days afterward at Stirling. On the same day, Mary miscarried the twins she bore by Bothwel.
         Escaping from her island-prison at Lochleven on 02 May 1568, Mary was able within a few days to assemble an army of 6000 men. On 12 May her army was defeated by the regent Moray at Langside, near Glasgow. Four days afterward, in spite of the entreaties of her best friends, Mary crossed Solway Firth and sought refuge at the court of Elizabeth I, queen of England, only to find herself a prisoner of Elizabeth for life.
          Bothwell, who had escaped to Norway, was captured and imprisoned in various parts of Scandinavia; the marriage was annulled in 1570 and Bothwell died insane in 1573 in a Danish prison. Mary escaped her own captivity, but was again defeated and turned for aid to the English Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603). Since Mary was a Catholic with a legitimate claim to the English throne she posed a problem for Elizabeth, and she was to stay as "guest" or rather prisoner in a number of places in England during the next twenty years.
         From 1570 Mary's son James VI was under the tutelage of her own former tutor George Buchanan. Buchanan had been outraged by Darnley's murder, and his appointment as moderator of the newly-founded General Assembly of the Church of Scotland (1567) had placed him in direct political opposition to the deposed Catholic queen.
          Buchanan produced pamphlets against her, culminating in 1571 with De Maria Scotorum Regina, translated into Scots as Ane Detectioun of the Duings of Mary Quene. Among its scurrilous accusations, the Detectioun alleged that Mary's affair with Bothwell prior to Darnley's death, and her complicity in his murder, where proved by eleven sonnets and a sextain avowit to be writtin by the Quene of Scottis, and found in ane small gilt cofer nat fully ane foote long, beyng garnisht in sondry places with the Romaine letter F under ane kyngis crowne, quhairin were certaine letters and writynges well knawin. These poems by Mary, quoted in the Detectioun (and therefore constituting the first publication in Scotland of work by a female author) were the basis of Buchanan's accusation of mad loue, infamous adulterie, and vile passione.
          Before publishing his attack (which contains many allegations Buchanan must have known to be false), he had already travelled to London in order to deliver it personally to Queen Elizabeth. Mary was rumored to be implicated in various plots against Elizabeth, including the Ridolfi plot of 1571, but no evidence was produced against her.
          While in captivity, Mary became the focus of various English Catholic and Spanish plots to overthrow Elizabeth. Her final downfall came in 1586, when she was implicated in a plot against Elizabeth led by her page Anthony Babington. Coded messages in which Mary approved the plot were intercepted by Sir Francis Walsingham (1530-90), whose espionage activities also included the interception of plans for the Spanish Armada (1587). Walsingham was among those who tried Mary at Fotheringay in October 1586 for complicity in the treasonous conspiracy, and she shared the fate of the other conspirators. She was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle in Peterborough on 8 February 1587, and in 1612 her body was moved to the chapel of her great-grandfather Henry VII at Westminster, where she still lies. Her motto, embroidered on her clothing, was En ma fin git mon commencement:. Mary's son, King James VI of Scotland, calmly accepted his mother's execution, and upon Queen Elizabeth's death in 1603, became king of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

         Mary Stuart's extant literary output (all of it in French) includes: A 66-line elegy; two poems to Queen Elizabeth; sixteen sonnets; a sextain; a 100-line Méditation; a poem of two quatrains addressed to Ronsard; a poem of two quatrains addressed to the Bishop of Ross; a quatrain preserved in Anne of Lorraine's Mass Book; quatrains and fragments in a Book of Hours; a prose essay. Couplets inscribed on glass at Buxton Wells and at Fotheringay are also attributed to her, and a Tetrasticha, ou Quatrains a Son Fils is recorded as having been in the library of William Drummond of Hawthornden.
         Mary spoke six languages but her first was French, which had long been widely spoken among the Scottish nobility, quite apart from the fact that Mary was herself half-French. She remained in France between the ages of five and eighteen, and the thorough education she received there acquainted her with the literature which she used as models in her own writing. Her library would eventually contain more than 300 books, and would constitute the largest collection of French and Italian poetry in Scotland.
         Charles IX of France, who succeeded François II, Mary's first husband, was a weak politician, but a scholarly man who formed around him a group of poets called the Pléiade, which included Pierre de Ronsard (1524-85), who had spent three years in Scotland at the court of James V. Mary and Ronsard were good friends, and in 1583 Mary gave a casket filled with 2000 écus to the writer whom she called "L'Apollon de la Source des Muses". Charles's group would later be emulated by Mary's son James VI with his Castalian Band, which was intended to do for Scots literature what the Pléiade did for French.
          Mary's own reign was a period which saw a revival of vernacular literature, as exemplified by the Maitland Manuscript. Among poets in Mary's circle was Mary Beaton (c1543-c1597), one of the Queen's "Four Mairies" who accompanied her to France.
          During the last decade of Mary's life, she wrote a number of sacred poems, including the Méditation which was published in 1574, along with her sonnet L'ire de Dieu par le sang n'apaise, in an anthology edited by her friend and adviser John Leslie, Bishop of Ross (1527-96). Apart from the love sonnets in the Detectioun (whose authorship has been doubted), this was the only other work by Mary which was published during her lifetime. Various isolated works appeared during the next three centuries, but it was not until 1873 that the Poems of Mary Queen of Scots were published. The first critical edition was Queen Mary's Book (1907). A modern selection is Bittersweet Within My Heart.
    1505 On their way to India, a group of Portuguese explorers sack the city-state of Kilwa, East Africa, and kill the king for failing to pay tribute.
    1216 Cencio Savelli was consecrated Pope Honorius III. During his 11-year pontificate, he confirmed two well-known religious orders: the Dominicans in 1216 and the Franciscans in 1223.
    1177 Se sella una paz definitiva en Venecia, por la que Federico I es absuelto de todas las censuras eclesiásticas en que había incurrido y se pone fin al Cisma eclesiástico.
    1934 1st ptarmigan hatched and reared in captivity, Ithaca, NY
    1945 US Navy bombers sink the Japanese battleship-carrier Hyuga in shallow waters off Kure, Japan.
    Deaths which occurred on a 24 July:
    2002 David Harris, 44, run over three times by his wife Clara Harris, 44, in her Mercedes Benz, in the evening, in Houston, after a private investigator hired by her confirmed her suspicions that her husband was being unfaithful. She is a dentist, he was an orthodontist. It was not his first marriage.
    1998 Two police officers in the US Capitol, shot by Russell Weston Jr. Diagnosed as a paranoid schizophrenic, he would be found incompetent to stand trial.
    1996: 64 civilians by two bombs blamed on Tamil separatists, on a commuter train near Colombo, Sri Lanka. More than 400 are wounded.
    1991 Isaac Bashevis Singer, 87, in Miami, Nobel prize winning author — Isaac Bashevis Singer, escritor estadounidense de origen polaco. Nobel de Literatura.
    1974 Sir James Chadwick, English physicist, born on 20 October 1891, who won the 1935 Nobel Prize for discovering the neutron.
    1974 Chris Chubbock, newscaster, shoots self on air.
    1971 Josef Sima, French artist born on 19 March 1891.
    1964 Finlay Freundlich — Freundlich was the Napier Professor of Astronomy at St Andrews. He worked with Einstein on measurements of the orbit of Mercury to confirm the general theory of relativity
    1957 Sacha Guitry, actor y dramaturgo francés.
    1951 Abdullah, rey de Jordania.
    1943 Over 1500 civilians in first of intensive raids on Hamburg
          British bombers raid Hamburg, Germany, by night in Operation Gomorrah, while Americans bomb it by day in its own "Blitz Week." Britain had suffered the deaths of 167 civilians as a result of German bombing raids in July. Now the evening of 24 July saw British aircraft drop 2300 tons of incendiary bombs on Hamburg in just a few hours. The explosive power was the equivalent of what German bombers had dropped on London in their five most destructive raids.
          More than 1500 German civilians were killed in that first British raid. Britain lost only 12 out of 791 aircraft in this raid, thanks to a new radar-jamming device called "Window," which consisted of strips of aluminum foil dropped by the bombers en route to their target. These Window strips confused German radar, which mistook the strips for aircraft, diverting them from the trajectory of the actual bombers. To make matters worse for Germany, the US Eighth Air Force began a more comprehensive bombing run of northern Germany, which included two raids on Hamburg during daylight hours.
          British attacks on Hamburg continued until November of that year. Although the percentage of British bombers lost increased with each raid as the Germans became more adept at distinguishing between Window diversions and actual bombers, Operation Gomorrah proved devastating to Hamburg-not to mention German morale. When it was over, 17'000 bomber sorties dropped more than 9000 tons of explosives, killing more than 30'000 people and destroying 280'000 buildings, including industrial and munitions plants. The effect on Hitler, too, was significant. He refused to visit the burned-out cities, as the ruins bespoke nothing but the end of the war for him. Diary entries of high German officials from this period describe a similar despair, as they sought to come to terms with defeat.
    1936 Onésimo Redondo, político español, fundador de las JONS.
    1934 Hans Hahn — Hahn was a pioneer in set theory and functional analysis and is best remembered for the Hahn-Banach theorem. He also made important contributions to the calculus of variations, developing ideas of Weierstrass.
    1919 Six persons in race riot in Washington DC (100 wounded)
    1915, 844 persons as excursion ship Eastland capsizes in Chicago River.
    1908 Walter Leistikow, Russian German artist born on 25 October 1865.
    1900 Two white policemen in race riot in New Orleans.
    1896 Kaspar Karsen, Dutch artist born on 02 April 1810.
    1874 Luis de Eguílaz, poeta y dramaturgo español.
    1862 Martin Van Buren, 79, eighth president of the United States, in Kinderhook NY.
    1861 Georgius Jacobus Johannes van Os, Dutch artist born on 20 November 1782.
    1842 John Sell (Snell?) Cotman, English Romantic painter born on 16 May 1782, specializes in Landscapes. — LINKSTilney All Saints Church near King's LynnWindmillOn the GretaThe Trees on the Greta111 prints at FAMSF
    1804 Martin Knoller, Austrian artist born on 08 November 1725.
    1802 Joseph Ducreux, French pastellist, miniaturist, First Painter to Queen Marie-Antoinette, born on 26 June 1735. — LINKSPortrait de l'Artiste Sous les Traits d'un Moqueur _ Portrait de l'Artiste Sous les Traits d'un Moqueur [presqu'identique aux deux tiers du haut du précédent]
    1781 Étienne Aubry, French artist born on 10 January 1745.
    1701 (or any day in 1688?) Jacob Gillig, Dutch artist born in 1636.
    1680 Ferdinand Janszoon van Bol, Dutch Baroque era painter born on 24 June 1616. — Ferdinand Bol Leaning on Window Sill (etching by Adam von Bartsch) — Young Man in Velvet Cap (Ferdinand Bol) (1637 etching by Rembrandt) — MORE ON VAN BOL AT ART “4” JULY LINKSSelf PortraitAeneas at the Court of LatinusConsul Titus Manlius Torquatus Beheading His SonElisabeth Jacobsdochter BasMaria Rey, Wife of Roelof MeulenaerRoelof MeulenaerThe Peace Negotiations between Claudius Civilis and CerealisVenus and AdonisJacob's DreamPortrait of a ManDavid's Dying Charge to Solomon
    1603 Santi di Tito, Italian artist born on 06 October 1536.
    Births which occurred on a 24 July:
    1945 Cristina Almeida, abogada y política española.
    1935 Manuel Hermoso Rojas, político español.
    1935 Adnan Khashnoggi Saudi businessman/financier
    1935 Pat Oliphant, political cartoonist.
    1932 William D Ruckelshaus, would head US Environmental Protection Agency
    1935 Manuel Hermoso Rojas, político español.
    1927 Alex Katz, US Pop Artist. — MORE ON KATZ AT ART “4” JULY LINKSJoanBlack BrookBeach SandalsBlack Shoes SwimmerUrsulaRed CapThe Green CapSwamp MapleReclining Figure
    1925 Ignacio Aldecoa, escritor español.
    1923 Hamill, mathematician
    1920 Bella Abzug (Rep-D-NY), the first Jewish woman elected to the US House of Representatives.
    1916 John D MacDonald novelist (Deep Blue Goodbye)
    1905 Severo Ochoa, bioquímico español, premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología.
    1898 Amelia Earhart, the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic, disappeared in the South Pacific while trying to fly around the world.
    1895 Robert Graves England, poet/historical novelist (I, Claudius)GRAVES ONLINE: Country SentimentFairies and Fusiliers
    1892 Marcel Gromaire, French artist who died in 1971.
    1880 Ernest Bloch Geneva, Switzerland, composer (MacBeth)
    1878 Lord Edward Dunsany, Ireland, dramatist/poet (Mirage Water) — DUNSANY ONLINE: The Book of Wonder—If— — [the following zipped — >] Fifty-One TalesFive PlaysThe Gods of PeganaPlays of Gods and MenTime and the Gods
    1871 Epstein, mathematician.
    1871 Giacomo Balla, Italian Futurist painter who died on 05 March 1958.
    MORE ON BALLA AT ART “4” JULY LINKSIl Sole e Mercurio VelocitàDinamismo di un cane al guinzaglioForm~Spirit Transformation (3 divergent rays reflected convergent)The Flight of the Swallows — Young Girl Running on a Balcony _ (somewhat like a photo multiple-exposure [but with partial superimposition] in Animal Locomotion- An Electro-photographic Investigation of Consecutive Phases of Animal Movements. by Muybridge [Eadweard Muggeridge 09 Apr 1830 – 1904]) — Feu d'ArtificeStreet LightAlberi spogli
    1868 Max Alfred Buri, Swiss artist who died on 21 May 1915.
    1857 Henrik Pontoppidan Denmark, realist writer (Nobel 1971)
    1856 Emile Picard, mathematician
    1851 Schottky, mathematician.
    1848 Francisco Pradilla y Ortiz, Spanish Realist painter who died on 01 November 1921. — MORE ON PRADILLA AT ART “4” JULYDoña Juana La Loca ante el féretro de Felipe el Hermoso
    1843 Eugen von Blaas, Austrian Academic painter who died in 1931. — LINKSThe Friendly Gossips
    1842 Ambrose Bierce Ohio, writer (Nuggets & Dust) — BIERCE ONLINE: Can Such Things Be?Can Such Things Be?The Devil's DictionaryFantastic FablesMy Favorite MurderAn Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge
    1832 Antonio García Cubas, historiador y geógrafo mexicano.
    1802 Alexandre Dumas, Père,      ^top^
         He would become one of the most prolific and most popular French authors of the 19th century. He died on 05 December 1870. [oeuvre]
    (père) DUMAS ONLINE:
  • Le Comte de Montecristo  
  • Histoire d'un Casse-noisette
  • La Boîte d'Argent
  • La Dame de Monsoreau
  • La Jeunesse des Mousquetaires
  • La Reine Margot
  • Emma Lyonna
  • Le Chevalier d'Harmental
  • Les Quarante-cinq
  • Marie Giovanni: Journal de Voyage d'une Parisienne
  • Vingt Ans après: suite des Trois Mousquetaires
  • Selected works (in English and French)
  • Histoire d'un casse-noisette (PDF)
  • I Tre Moschettieri  (trad.)
  • Il Tulipano Nero  (trad.)
  • DUMAS SR. ONLINE in English translations
  • :Anthony
  • The Black Tulip
  • Caligula
  • The Count of Monte Cristo
  • A Gil Blas in California
  • Lorenzino
  • Marguerite de Valois, co-author Auguste Maquet
  • The Musketeers: Drama in a Prologue and Five Acts,
  • Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Queen Margot: Drama in 5 Acts
  • The Three Musketeers
  • Twenty Years After
  • Ten Years Later
  • The Vicomte de Bragelone
  • Louise de La Valliere
  • The Man in the Iron Mask
  • 1783 Simón Bolívar, in Caracas, New Granada [now in Venezuela]      ^top^
         He died on 17 December 1830, near Santa Marta, Colombia, "El Libertador", South American soldier and statesman who led the revolutions against Spanish rule in New Granada (renamed Gran Colombia, in 1819 and including Venezuela and Ecuador as well as Colombia), Peru, and Upper Peru (Bolivia). He was president, actually dictator, of both Colombia (1821-30) and Peru (1823-29). He died on 17 December 1830 — Naissance de Simon BOLIVAR, à Caracas (Venezuela). Grand général, chef d'État sud-américain, il conduisit la rébellion contre les espagnols en 1813 et devint chef du Venezuela. Mais les espagnols reconquirent provisoirement le pays et mirent Bolivar en fuite. Il devait par la suite libérer le Pérou, la Colombie, l'Équateur et enfin, à nouveau le Venezuela.
    1734 Jean Baptiste Claude Robin, French artist who died on 23 November 1818.
    1703 Justus Juncker, German artist who died in 1767.
    1695 Martin Mytens II, Swedish artist who died on 23 March 1770.
    1623 Matheus van Helmont, Flemish artist who died in 1679.
    Holidays / Denmark : Midsummer Day / Ecuador, Venezuala : Bolivar Day (1783) / Idaho, Utah : Pioneer Day (1847) / Spain : Valencia Fair Day-Battle of the Flowers

    Religious Observances RC: St Christina, virgin/martyr / Ang: Thomas a Kempis, priest / Santas Cristina y Eufrasia. Santos Vicente, Víctor y Ursicinio.

    Thoughts for the day: “We hang the petty thieves and appoint the great ones to public office."
    "Just because you're floating doesn't mean you haven't drowned" ~ John Linnell

    "No matter what side of an argument you're on, you always find some people on your side that you wish were on the other side." — Jascha Heifetz, Russian-born US violinist (1901-1987). [and vice-versa]
    “No matter what side of an argument you're on, you usually find out that there is more than one other side.”
    updated 020730 18:27 UT
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