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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 05
[For events of Jun 05  Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jun 151700s: Jun 161800s: Jun 171900~2099: Jun 18]
• Adam Smith is born... • Bloodbath spreads in Beijing... • D~Day tomorrow... • Robert Kennedy fatally shot... • March Against Fear... • Marshall Plan... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Uncle Tom's Cabin... • UN peacekeapers massacred... • Keynes is born... • Battle of Piedmont... • Hound Dog... • US Secretary of Defense testifies on Vietnam... • Discoverer of Klondike gold dies... • Profumo resigns... • Removable car top... • Difference Engine's supporter...
click for 20 photos of Elizabeth On an 05 June:
2002 Elizabeth Ann Smart, 14 [< photo], is abducted by a gunman shortly after 01:00, from the bedroom she shares with her sister Mary Katherine, 9, in the wealthy home of mortgage broker Edward Smart, at about 1500 E. Kristianna Circle (420 North) in the Federal Heights neighborhood of Salt Lake City. The other siblings are Charles, 17, Andrew, 12, Edward, 7, and William, 3. [photo: Elizabeth Smart in December 2000 >] (on this same day, in San Diego, the trial of David Westerfield, 50, begins, for the adbduction from her bedroom and 02 February 2002 murder of Danielle van Dam, 7, whose body was discovered on 27 February 2002.) Elizabeth Smart was born on 03 November 1987. A highly publicized search for her would go on for nine months. Richard Albert Ricci, 48, a handyman who had worked in the Smart home, would be considered a potential witness or suspect, though he denied knowing anything; he would be arrested for an unrelated parole violation, suffer a brain hemorrhage in jail on 27 August 2002, and die on 30 August 2002. On 12 March 2003 Elizabeth Smart would be found alive and well, wearing a wig, 25 km from her home, riding in the car of “Emmanuel” Brian David Mitchell [1998 photo below, right], a drifter who had done work at her family's home in November 2001 and who believes that he is a prophet who needs to preach to the homeless; he has no source of income other than handouts.
Mitchell in 1998
2002 Civil servant Hidenori Iinuma's decomposed body is found in a discarded freezer. He had been reported missing in 1997 by his wife Akemi Iinuma, now 40, who is arrested on 06 June 2002 on suspicion of murder.

2002 Ngo Hoang Thao, 45, is sentenced to death (by firing squad) by the People's Court of Thai Binh province, Vietnam, for serving rat-poison-laced pork and tomatoes to his parents in December 2001 after a series of conflicts with them. The couple died immediately after eating.

2000 In Honiara, six armed rebels from the Malaita Eagle Force capture Prime Minister Bartholemew Ulufa'alu of the Solomons early in the morning and hold him hostage

1998 Etiopía y Eritrea inician una guerra abierta por los desacuerdos fronterizos.

1991 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev delivered his delayed Nobel Peace lecture in Oslo, warning that Western failure to heed his call for economic aid could dash hopes for a peaceful new world order
1991 El pleno del Senado español aprueba el proyecto de ley por el que se crea el Consejo Económico y Social, órgano consultivo en materia socioeconómica y laboral.

1989 El filólogo Joan Corominas es galardonado con el Premio Nacional de las Letras, por sus investigaciones sobre las lenguas catalana y castellana.

1986 El Gobierno estadounidense autoriza la venta de una droga producida por la ingeniería genética para combatir la leucemia, llamada interferon.
1984 Indira Gandhi orders attack on Sikh's holiest site (Golden Temple)
1982 España ingresa en la OTAN.
1981 Center of Disease Control reports of a pneumonia affecting homosexuals (AIDS)
1981 Ronald Reagan decide la fabricación en Estados Unidos de la bomba de neutrones o bomba limpia.

1977 first personal computer, the Apple II, goes on sale
1977 Coup in Seychelles (National Day) — Golpe de Estado en las Seychelles: el presidente Mancham es depuesto y el primer ministro asume el poder y establece un sistema socialista de partido único.
1975 Egypt reopens the Suez Canal to international shipping, on the 8th anniversary of the start of the 1967 6~Day War, because of which it had been closed since June 1967.
1973 Gordon Sinclair forgets Lafayette.
     Canadian radio commentator Gordon Sinclair (1900~06~03 — 1984) delivers an editorial “The Americans” praising the United States, calling it "the most generous and possibly the least appreciated people on all the earth." and saying: "I can name you 5000 times when the Americans raced to the help of other people in trouble. Can you name me even one time when someone else raced to the Americans in trouble?” [Listen to the original audio]
     — Yes, I can. It was the time when the someone's name was Lafayette.
— Books by Gordon Sinclair: Footloose in India — Cannibal Quest — Loose Among the Devils — Khyber Caravan — Bright Paths to Adventure (1950) — Signpost to Adventure (1952) — Will the Real Gordon Sinclair Please Stand Up? (1966) — Will the Real Gordon Sinclair Please Sit Down? (1975).
1972 Laird testifies on Vietnam before Congress       ^top^
      Testifying before a joint Congressional Appropriations Committee, Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird says the increase in US military activity in Vietnam could add up to $5 billion to the 1973 fiscal budget, doubling the annual cost of the war. This increased US activity was in response to the North Vietnamese Nguyen Hue Offensive, also called the Easter Offensive, which had been launched on 31 March. This offensive was a massive invasion by North Vietnamese forces designed to strike the blow that would win them the war. The attacking force included 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, with more than 120'000 soldiers and approximately 1200 tanks and other armored vehicles. The main North Vietnamese objectives were Quang Tri in the north, Kontum in the Central Highlands, and An Loc farther to the south. In response, President Richard Nixon had ordered massive support for the South Vietnamese defenders and their US advisers. The number of US Air Force fighter-bombers in Southeast Asia was tripled, and B-52s were quadrupled. Nixon ordered additional ships to join the 7th Fleet, sending the aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk from the Philippines to join the carriers already off the coast of Vietnam in providing air support.
1968 Robert F. Kennedy fatally shot       ^top^
      At 00:50 PST, Senator Robert F. Kennedy, a presidential candidate, has just completed a speech celebrating his victory in the California Primary. As star athletes Rafer Johnson and Roosevelt Grier accompany Kennedy out a rear exit of the Ambassador Hotel, Palestinian Sirhan Bishara Sirhan stepped forward with a rolled up campaign poster, hiding his .22 revolver. He is only 30 cm away when he fires several shots at Kennedy. Five others are wounded. Wrestling Sirhan to the ground, Grier and Johnson take his gun away before anyone else is shot. Grier was distraught afterward and blamed himself for allowing Kennedy to be shot. Sirhan confessed to the crime at his trial and received a death sentence on 24 April 1969. However, since the Supreme Court invalidated all death penalty sentences in 1972, Sirhan will spend the rest of his life in prison. He has never provided a clear explanation for why he targeted Bobby Kennedy. Hubert Humphrey ended up running for the Democrats in 1968 and lost by a small margin to Nixon. ,
     Kennedy, critically wounded, is rushed to the hospital where he fights for his life for the next thirty-two hours. On the morning of 06 June he died, and two days later was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, the final resting place of his assassinated older brother, President John F. Kennedy.
      Robert Kennedy, a legal counsel for various Senate subcommittees during the 1950s, served as the manager of his brother’s successful presidential campaign in 1960. Appointed attorney general by President Kennedy, he proved a vigorous member of the cabinet, zealously prosecuting cases relating to civil rights while closely advising the president on various domestic and foreign issues.
      After Kennedy’s assassination in 1963, he joined President Lyndon B. Johnson’s administration, but resigned in 1964 to run successfully in New York for a Senate seat. Known in Congress as an advocate of social reform and defender of the rights of minorities, he also voiced criticism of the war in Vietnam.
      Senator Robert Kennedy (D-New York) was a leading critic of the Johnson administration's policy in Vietnam. Kennedy had initially been a supporter of the Johnson administration's Vietnam War policy, but he became increasingly critical after President Lyndon B. Johnson approved the resumed bombing of North Vietnam in early 1966. Kennedy had declared his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination in March 1968 after Senator Eugene McCarthy's surprisingly strong showing in the New Hampshire primary. When Johnson announced that he would not run for his party's nomination, Kennedy became the front-runner. On the day of his death, he had just defeated McCarthy in the California primary.
      In 1968, he was urged by many of his supporters to run for president as an anti-war and socially progressive Democratic. Hesitant until he saw positive primary returns for fellow anti-war candidate Eugene McCarthy, he announced his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination on 16 March 1968.
      Fifteen days later, President Johnson announced that he would not seek reelection, and Vice President Hubert Humphrey became the key Democratic hopeful, with McCarthy and Kennedy trailing closely behind. However, Kennedy conducted an energetic campaign, and on 04 June 1968, he won a major victory in the California primary. In the early hours of the next morning, he gave a victory speech to his supporters in the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, and then, while making his way to a press conference by a side exit, he was fatally wounded by Palestinian Sirhan Sirhan. Sirhan was arrested at the scene, indicted for first degree murder, convicted, and, on 23 April 1969, sentenced to die. However, his death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in 1972 when the California Supreme Court abolished the death penalty.
      Although Sirhan’s motives were not entirely clear, the 05 June attack did come on the first anniversary of the Israeli invasion of his homeland in the Six-Day War, and he may have been retaliating against America’s historic support of Israel. Others have alleged that Sirhan was part of a larger assassination conspiracy, reportedly brought on by Kennedy’s promise to end the Vietnam War if elected president. These conspiracists cite forensic evidence and witness testimony that they say proves the existence of additional shooters who were not detained.
1967 The Six-Day War begins       ^top^
      Responding to the Egyptian reoccupation of Gaza and the closure of the Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli shipping, Israel launches simultaneous military offensives against Egypt and Syria. Jordan subsequently entered the fray, and so did Iraq and Lebanon. But the Arab coalition was no match for Israel’s well-supplied and famously proficient armed forces.
      In six days, Israel occupied the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, the Golan Heights of Syria, and the West Bank and Arab sector of East Jerusalem, both previously under Jordanian rule.
      The so-called Six-Day War gave Israel control of territory three times its original size, and Jerusalem was unified under Jewish rule, despite a UN resolution calling for the preservation of the holy city’s Arab sector.
      Arab leaders, forced to accept a UN cease-fire, met at Khartoum in the Sudan in August to discuss the future of Israel in the Middle East. They decided upon a policy of no peace, no negotiations, and no recognition of Israel, and also made plans to zealously defend the rights of Palestinian Arabs in the territories occupied by Israel.
1966 Meredith starts his March Against Fear       ^top^
      James H. Meredith, who in 1962 became the first African American to attend the University of Mississippi, starts his lone "March Against Fear," in Memphis, Tennessee, bound for Jackson, Mississippi, in an attempt to encourage voter registration by Southern African Americans.
      A former serviceman in the US Air Force, Meredith applied to the University of Mississippi in 1962, was accepted, but then had his admission revoked when the registrar learned of his race. A federal court ordered "Ole Miss" to admit him, but when he went to register on 20 September 1962, he found the entrance to the office blocked by Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett. On 28 September the governor was found guilty of civil contempt and was ordered to cease his interference with desegregation at the university or face arrest and a fine of $10'000 a day.
      On 30 September Meredith was escorted onto the Ole Miss campus by US Marshals, setting off riots that resulted in the deaths of two students. The next day, Meredith returned and began classes. The next year, he graduated with a degree in government. Three years later, Meredith returned to the public eye when he began his March Against Fear.
      On 07 June, two days into the march, he was sent to a hospital by a sniper’s bullet. However, other civil rights leaders, such as Martin Luther King, Jr., and Stokely Carmichael, arrived to continue the march without him. It was during the March Against Fear that Carmichael, who was leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, first spoke publicly of "Black Power," which was his concept of militant African-American nationalism. James Meredith later recovered and rejoined the march he had originated, and, on 26 June, the marchers successfully reached their goal, Jackson, Mississippi.
1965 Se aprueba la Constitución de Honduras.
1964 El Papa Pablo VI levanta los castigos eclesiásticos para aquellos cristianos que deseen la incineración después de muertos.
1963 El ayatollah Ruhola Jomeini es arrestado por las autoridades iraníes. En Teherán se producen graves disturbios y el Sha y su familia abandonan la capital.
1963 British Secretary of War resigns in sex scandal.       ^top^
      British Secretary of War John Profumo resigns his post following revelations that he had lied to the House of Commons about his sexual affair with Christine Keeler, an alleged prostitute. At the time of the affair, Keeler was also involved with Yevgeny "Eugene" Ivanov, a Soviet naval attaché who some suspected was a spy. Although Profumo assured the government that he had not compromised national security in any way, the scandal threatened to topple Prime Minister Harold Macmillan's government. Age 48 in 1963, John Dennis Profumo was appointed secretary of war by Macmillan in 1960. As war minister, he was in charge of overseeing the British army. The post was a junior cabinet position, but Profumo looked a good candidate for future promotion. He was married to Valerie Hobson, a retired movie actress, and the Profumos were very much at the center of "swinging '60s" society in the early 1960s.
      One night in July 1961, John Profumo was at the Cliveden estate of Lord "Bill" Astor when he was first introduced to 19-year-old Christine Keeler. She was frolicking naked by the Cliveden pool. Keeler was at Cliveden as a guest of Dr. Stephen Ward, a society osteopath and part-time portraitist who rented a cottage at the estate from his friend Lord Astor. Keeler was working as a showgirl at a London nightclub when she first met Dr. Ward. Ward took her under his wing, and they lived together in his London flat but were not lovers. He encouraged her to pursue sexual relationships with his high-class friends, and on one or more occasions Keeler apparently accepted money in exchange for sex. Ward introduced her to his friend Ivanov, and she began a sexual relationship with the Soviet diplomat. Several weeks after meeting Profumo at Cliveden, she also began an affair with the war minister. There is no evidence that either of these men paid her for sex, but Profumo once gave Keeler some money to buy her mother a birthday present. After an intense few months, Profumo ended his affair with Keeler before the end of 1961. His indiscretions might never have come to public attention were it not for an incident involving Keeler that occurred in early 1963. Johnny Edgecombe, a West Indian marijuana dealer, was arrested for shooting up the exterior of Ward's London flat after Keeler, his ex-lover, refused to let him in. The press gave considerable coverage to the incident and subsequent trial, and rumors were soon abounding about Keeler's earlier relationship with Profumo.
      When Keeler confirmed reports of her affair with Profumo, and admitted a concurrent relationship with Ivanov, what had been cocktail-party gossip grew into a scandal with serious security connotations. On 21 March 1963, Colonel George Wigg, a Labour MP for Dudley, raised the issue in the House of Commons, inviting the member of government in question to affirm or deny the rumors of his improprieties. Wigg forced Profumo's hand, not, he claimed, to embarrass the Conservative government but because the Ivanov connection was a matter of national security. Behind closed doors, however, British intelligence had already concluded that Profumo had not compromised national security in any way and found little evidence implicating Ivanov as a spy. Nevertheless, Wigg had raised the issue, and Profumo had no choice but to stand up before Parliament on 22 March and make a statement. He vehemently denied the charges, saying "there was no impropriety whatsoever in my acquaintanceship with Miss Keeler." To drive home his point, he continued, "I shall not hesitate to issue writs for libel and slander if scandalous allegations are made or repeated outside the House." Profumo's convincing denial defused the scandal for several weeks, but in May Dr. Stephen Ward went on trial in London on charges of prostituting Keeler and other young women. In the highly sensationalized trial, Keeler testified under oath about her relationship with Profumo. Ward also wrote Harold Wilson, leader of the Labour opposition in Parliament, and affirmed that Profumo had lied to the House of Commons.
      On 04 June, Profumo returned from a holiday in Italy with his wife and confessed to Conservative leaders that Miss Keeler had been his mistress and that his 22 March statement to the Commons was untrue. On 05 June, he resigned as war minister. Prime Minister Macmillan was widely criticized for his handling of the Profumo scandal. In the press and in Parliament, Macmillan was condemned as being old, out-of-touch, and incompetent. In October, he resigned under pressure from his own government. He was replaced by Conservative Alec Douglas-Home, but in the general election in 1964 the Conservatives were swept from power by Harold Wilson's Labour Party. Dr. Stephen Ward fell into a coma after attempting suicide by an overdose of pills. In his absence, he was found guilty of living off the immoral earnings of prostitution and died shortly after without regaining consciousness. Christine Keeler was convicted of perjury in a related trial and began a prison sentence in December 1963. John Profumo left politics after his resignation and dedicated himself to philanthropy in the East End of London. For his charitable work, Queen Elizabeth II named him a Commander of the British Empire, one of Britain's highest honors, in 1975.
1960 John XXIII published his motu proprio, 'Superno Dei Nutu,' which created the necessary committees and organizational structure for the upcoming Vatican II Ecumenical Council (1962-65).
1956 Elvis creates uproar       ^top^
      Elvis introduces his new single, "Hound Dog," on The Milton Berle Show. Elvis scandalized the audience with his suggestive hip gyrations. In the media frenzy that followed, other show hosts, including Ed Sullivan, denounced his performance. Sullivan swore he would never invite Presley on his own show, but that autumn he booked Elvis for three shows. Presley had been recording since 1954. While working at a Memphis electrical shop, the 18-year-old Presley dropped by a Memphis recording studio on a lunch break and paid $4 to record two songs for his mother's birthday. The office assistant at Sun Records, where he made the recording, was so impressed that she brought the record to studio executive Sam Phillips, who signed him in 1954. His first recording, "That's All Right," hit No. 4 on the country-western charts in Memphis. Elvis soon began performing regularly on radio programs and made his television debut on a Memphis show in March 1955. That September, he had his first No. 1 country record--a rendition of Junior Parker's "Mystery Train." RCA purchased Presley's contract, and he made his first RCA recordings in Nashville in 1956, including "I Got a Woman," "Heartbreak Hotel," and "I Was the One."
      On 28 January 1956, television audiences met Presley on the variety program Stage Show. He appeared on several more programs before filming his first movie, Love Me Tender (1956), which took just three days to earn back its $1 million cost. All of Presley's singles that year went gold. Elvis' controversial dancing, with his trademark hip gyrations, upset parents but delighted teenage girls. During an appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1956, cameras showed him only from the waist up. Elvis received his draft notice in December 1957 but took a deferment to finish filming his fourth movie, King Creole. Before his military induction, he recorded enough material so that the stream of Elvis hits was uninterrupted during his tour of duty. He continued to dominate the charts through the mid-'60s and made more than 20 movies. Elvis stopped performing live in 1961 but made a comeback in the late '60s, becoming a Las Vegas fixture and releasing several top singles, including "In the Ghetto" and "Suspicious Minds" in 1969. As his popularity continued to skyrocket, the "King of Rock and Roll" reportedly turned to drugs. His final live performance was on 25 June 1977, and on 16 August 1977, the day of his next scheduled concert, his girlfriend found him dead in a bathroom at Graceland, the Memphis mansion he built and named after his mother. Congestive heart failure was cited as the cause of death, but prescription drug abuse was suspected as a contributing factor. He was buried at Graceland. Nine years after his death, he was one of the first 10 people inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. During his life, he had scored 94 gold singles and more than 40 gold LPs.
You ain't nothin' but a hound dog cryin' all the time.
You ain't nothin' but a hound dog cryin' all the time
Well, you ain't never caught a rabbit and you ain't no friend of mine.
When they said you was high classed, well, that was just a lie.
When they said you was high classed, well, that was just a lie.
You ain't never caught a rabbit and you ain't no friend of mine.
1953 Denmark adopts a new constitution
1950 US Supreme Court undermines legal foundations of segregation
1948 Con el respaldo de las tropas francesas, se constituye en Vietnam un Gobierno presidido por Nguyen Xuan, primer paso para la independencia del país con la ayuda del ex emperador Bao Dai.
1947 Marshall proposes his Plan.       ^top^
      During a commencement speech at Harvard University, US Secretary of State George C. Marshall outlined his proposal to provide massive US aid to postwar Europe, warning that devastated countries such as France and Germany "must have substantial additional help or face economic, social, and political deterioration of a very grave character." US President Harry S. Truman, who dubbed the proposal the "Marshall Plan," put Marshall at the head of the committee that designed the foreign assistance package and presented it to Congress. In addition to working closely with congressional members, Secretary of State Marshall also toured the country to promote the bill and encourage its passage. After a lengthy debate, Congress passed the Foreign Assistance Act, and on April 3, 1948, President Truman signed it into law. Between 1948 and 1951, the Marshall Plan channeled over $13 billion in aid to Europe, sparking economic recovery in Western and Northern Europe and saving the US economy from a postwar recession by providing a greater market for American goods. However, because the USSR prevented countries like Poland and Czechoslovakia from participating, the Marshall Plan also contributed to the raising of the "Iron Curtain" between Eastern and Western Europe.
     In one of the most significant speeches of the Cold War, Secretary of State George C. Marshall calls on the United States to assist in the economic recovery of postwar Europe. His speech provided the impetus for the so-called Marshall Plan, under which the United States sent billions of dollars to Western Europe to rebuild the war-torn countries. In 1946 and into 1947, economic disaster loomed for Western Europe. World War II had done immense damage, and the crippled economies of Great Britain and France could not reinvigorate the region's economic activity. Germany, once the industrial dynamo of Western Europe, lay in ruins. Unemployment, homelessness, and even starvation were commonplace. For the United States, the situation was of special concern on two counts. First, the economic chaos of Western Europe was providing a prime breeding ground for the growth of communism. Second, the US economy, which was quickly returning to a civilian state after several years of war, needed the markets of Western Europe in order to sustain itself.
      On 05 June 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall, speaking at Harvard University, outlined the dire situation in Western Europe and pleaded for US assistance to the nations of that region. "The truth of the matter," the secretary claimed, "is that Europe's requirements for the next three or four years of foreign food and other essential products--principally from America--are so much greater than her present ability to pay that she must have substantial additional help or face economic, social, and political deterioration of a very grave character." Marshall declared, "Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos." In a thinly veiled reference to the communist threat, he promised "governments, political parties, or groups which seek to perpetuate human misery in order to profit therefrom politically or otherwise will encounter the opposition of the United States." In March 1948, the United States Congress passed the Economic Cooperation Act (more popularly known as the Marshall Plan), which set aside $4 billion in aid for Western Europe. By the time the program ended nearly four years later, the United States had provided over $12 billion for European economic recovery. British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin likened the Marshall Plan to a "lifeline to sinking men."
1945 At the end of World War II, the Allied Control Commission takes control of Germany, dividing it into four occupation zones, one each for USA, UK, USSR, France
1945 Se forma consejo de guerra en Burgos contra Manuel Hedilla, sucesor de José Antonio Primo de Rivera en la jefatura de Falange y que se opuso al decreto de unificación con los tradicionalistas.
1944 Allies prepare for D-Day       ^top^
      More than 1000 British bombers drop 5000 tons of bombs on German gun batteries placed at the Normandy assault area, while 3000 Allied ships cross the English Channel in preparation for the invasion of Normandy-D-Day. The day of the invasion of occupied France had been postponed repeatedly since May, mostly because of bad weather and the enormous tactical obstacles involved. Finally, despite less than ideal weather conditions--or perhaps because of them--General Eisenhower decides on 05 June to set the next day as D-Day, the launch of the largest amphibious operation in history.
      Ike knows that the Germans would be expecting postponements beyond the sixth, precisely because weather conditions are still poor. Among those Germans confident that an Allied invasion could not be pulled off on the sixth is Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, who is still debating tactics with Field Marshal Karl Rundstedt. Runstedt is convinced that the Allies will come in at the narrowest point of the Channel, between Calais and Dieppe; Rommel, following Hitler's intuition, believes it would be Normandy. Rommel's greatest fear is that German air inferiority would prevent an adequate defense on the ground; it is his plan to meet the Allies on the coast-before the Allies have a chance to come ashore.
      Rommel began constructing underwater obstacles and minefields, and set off for Germany to demand from Hitler personally more panzer divisions in the area. Bad weather and an order to conserve fuel grounded much of the German air force on 05 June; consequently, its reconnaissance flights were spotty. That night, more than 1000 British bombers unleashed a massive assault on German gun batteries on the coast. At the same time, an Allied armada headed for the Normandy beaches in Operation Neptune, an attempt to capture the port at Cherbourg. But that was not all.
      In order to deceive the Germans, phony operations were run; dummy parachutists and radar-jamming devices were dropped into strategically key areas so as to make German radar screens believe there was an Allied convoy already on the move. One dummy parachute drop succeeded in drawing an entire German infantry regiment away from its position just 10 km from the actual Normandy landing beaches. All this effort is to scatter the German defenses and make way for Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy.
1943 ENIAC contract signed
      The US Army contracted with the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School to develop an electronic computer. The contract granted the Moore School $61'700 for the next six months. The computer, later known as ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) would take more than three years to build: Although the machine was developed to speed the calculation of firing tables for artillery, the computer was not finished until shortly after World War II.
1940 first synthetic rubber tire exhibited Akron Oh
1940 Battle of France begins in WW II
1940 Les Allemands attaquent sur la Somme et sur l'Aisne -- De Gaulle est nommé sous-secrétaire d'Etat à la Défense
1937 Primer ensayo de comunicación regular aérea entre el Viejo y el Nuevo Continente por el Atlántico Norte, entre Foynes (Irlanda) y Terranova (Canadá), por medio de hidroaviones.
1933 US goes off gold standard
1917 10 million US men begin registering for draft in WW I
1916 La Cámara francesa acuerda que se adelanten los relojes una hora, como medida de ahorro de energía.
1914 Mongolia Exterior obtiene la autonomía.
1912 US marines invade Cuba (3nd time)
1883 Inauguración del Orient-Express, primer ferrocarril en el que fueron utilizados coches-cama.
1876 Bananas become popular in US, at Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia.
1873 Under pressure from the British, the sultan of Zanzibar signs a treaty abolishing slavery.
1864 Battle at Piedmont, Virginia
1863 Francia, Inglaterra y Rusia firman en Londres el protocolo que les acredita como potencias protectoras de Grecia.
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Union forces arrive at Fort Pillow, a key stronghold on the Mississippi River, to find that the Confederates have already evacuated the day before.
1855 Anti-foreign anti-Roman Catholic Know-Nothing Party's first convention
1849 Danish National Day-Denmark becomes a constitutional monarchy
click for portrait and more1833 Difference Engine finds young supporter       ^top^
       Augusta Ada Byron, the beautiful teenage daughter of the poet Lord Byron, born on 10 December 1815, attends a party at the home of Charles Babbage, a well-known mathematician whose frequent salons draws luminaries like Darwin, Longfellow, and Dickens. Babbage is hard at work on a calculating machine he calls the "Difference Engine."
[click on image for portraits and MORE ABOUT ADA >]
      Ada, a mathematical prodigy, became fascinated by the machine and quickly befriended Babbage. She and Babbage kept up a lively correspondence about the machine for many years, even after her 1935 marriage to the Earl of Lovelace. Ada helped spread the ideas behind the Difference Engine by publishing scientific papers describing the machine. These papers were published anonymously--women in nineteenth-century England rarely published under their own names. She died at age thirty-six, on 27 November 1852.
     The ADA computer programming language was named after her.
click for full painting1806 Batavian Republic becomes the Kingdom of Holland
1794 US Congress passes the Neutrality Act, which prohibits US citizens from serving in foreign armed forces
1793 THIBAUDIER Alphonse, (dit Gravignon), domicilié à Paris, est condamné à mort par contumace par le tribunal criminel du département de la Seine, comme fabricateur de faux assignats.
1783 Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier make the first sustained, manned flight when their balloon, "un globe aérostatique," rises an estimated 500 meters and flies 2500 meters in 10 minutes, at Annonay, France.
1661 Isaac Newton admitted as a student to Trinity College, Cambridge
1625 Rendición de la ciudad de Breda (Países Bajos), acto que fue inmortalizado por Velázquez en el cuadro Las Lanzas. [click on detail for full painting >]
--8239 -BC- presumed origin of Mayan Era of Creation.
Deaths which occurred on a June 05:
2002 Israelis Sgt. Dotan Reisel, 22, Corp. Liron Avitan, 19, Sgt. Violetta Hizgayev, 19, Staff Sgt. Eliran Buskila, 21, Corp. Vladimir Morari, 19, Staff Sgt. Zvika Gelberd, 20, Staff Sgt. Gennadi Issakov, 20, Corp. Dennis Bleuman, 20, Zion Agmon, 50, all 9 from Hadera; Corp. Avraham Barzilai, 19; Sgt. Sariel Katz, 21; Sgt. Yigal Nedipur, 21; Staff Sgt. David Stanislavsky, 23, all 4 from Netanya; Sgt. Sivan Wiener, 19, from Holon; Adi Dahan, 17, from Afula; Shimon Timsit, 35, from Tel-Aviv; Eliyahu Timsit, 32, from Sderot; and Hamze Samudi, Palestinian driver of a suicide car bomb which explodes next to a bus near Megiddo junction, Israel, at about 07:15. 13 of the dead are Israeli soldiers, as are most of the 38 injured. The bus is completely destroyed and nothing recognizable remains of the attacking car other than an engine block. The Egged 830 bus had left Tel Aviv at 05:50 bound for Tiberias, and was traveling from Afula to Hadera. The Jerusalem Brigades, the military wing of Islamic Jihad, announces that it is its doing, to mark the 35th anniversary of the start of Six-Day War, in which Israel captured the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and that the “martyr” driving the car was from Jenin. A few hours later the Israelis attack Jenin with tanks and machine-gun fire from helicopters, and call it “a routine operation”.
1993: 24 UN peacekeepers massacred in Somalia       ^top^
      In the Somalian capital of Mogadishu, twenty-four Pakistani UN peacekeepers are ambushed and massacred while inspecting a weapons storage site. The attack occurs in the southern portion of the city, which is under the control of Somali warlord General Mohammed Aidid. The next day, the UN Security Council issues an emergency resolution tacitly calling for the arrest of Aidid, and US and UN forces began an extensive search for the elusive strongman.
      In late 1992, civil war, clan-based fighting, and the worst African drought of the century created famine conditions that threatened one-fourth of Somalia’s population with starvation. In August, the UN began a peacekeeping mission to the country to assure the distribution of food and medical aid. On 04 December, with deteriorating security and the UN troops unable to control Somalia’s warring factions, US President George Bush ordered 25'000 US soldiers into Somalia. Although he promised the troops involved that the humanitarian mission was not an open-ended commitment, "Operation Restore Hope" remained unresolved when Bill Clinton took over the presidency on 20 January 1993.
      Like his predecessor, Clinton was anxious to bring the Americans home, and in May the mission was formally handed back to the UN By June, only 4200 US troops remained. However, on 05 June the Pakistani peacekeepers are massacred by Aidid, and US forces escalate their attacks on Aidid's strongholds, resulting in increased American casualties. On 26 August, four hundred elite US soldiers from Delta Force and the US Rangers arrived on a mission to bolster the US force in Somalia and capture Aidid. Two months later, on October 3 and 4, eighteen of these soldiers were killed and eighty-four wounded during a disastrous assault on Mogadishu’s Olympia Hotel in search of Aidid. The bloody battle, which lasted seventeen hours, was the most violent US combat firefight since Vietnam. Three days later, with Aidid still at large, President Clinton cut his losses and ordered a total US withdrawal. On 25 March 1994, the last US troops left Somalia.
1989 More people killed by troops in Beijing, even after Tienanmen Square has been bloodily cleared of demonstrators during the last two days.       ^top^
Troops Rampage Through Beijing -- Beijing Citizens Show Courage Beyond Belief http://www.cnd.org/June4th/1989.06-05.hz8.html
BEIJING - Machine-gun and small arms fire ripped through the heart of the capital last night and early this morning as security forces continued to savagely suppress China's short-lived Freedom Spring. Hundreds of tanks and armored vehicles clattered through the streets, firing long bursts from turret-mounted machine guns. At times the fire was directed at crowds of protesters still milling at intersections.
      The Chinese official media proclaimed that the military had won a "glorious victory" over "scoundrels and rebellious elements." The government pledged to act "mercilessly" to "crush turmoil." Merciless is almost too mild a word to describe the military rampage.
      In an assault witnessed by a reporter last night, soldiers firing AK-47 assault rifles charged a small knot of demonstrators on a major avenue. The protesters quickly dispersed. The soldiers then abruptly turned down a narrow market lane, shooting indiscriminately as shoppers screamed and scrambled for cover. A young woman was killed, shot in the throat while carrying a basket of apricots. Several other people were seriously wounded. The soldiers made no attempt to assist the wounded.
      Sections of the capital resembled a war zone, with dozens of buses burning at major intersections. Helicopters droned continuously overhead. Changan Avenue was strewn with rubble, smashed bicycles and overturned military trucks. Three soldiers were reported killed, two of them crushed by their own tanks.
      Tiananmen Square was cordoned off by at least 75 tanks and thousands of troops. Smoke rose as soldiers apparently set fire to the tents and lean-tos that had sheltered the youthful protesters. Soldiers positioned around the square fired upon four Western journalists who approached on foot in daylight.
      In at least seven major cities across China, crowds marched to protest the Beijing massacre. The cities included Shanghai, Changsha, Dalian and Shenyang. Troops did not intervene to stop the marches in the provincial cities.
      Meanwhile, the remaining Tiananmen protesters were barricaded in the campus of Beijing University and the adjacent People's University, where they had driven a captured armored personnel carrier. Students could be seen firing the vehicle's machine gun into the air. Memorial vigils were held on the sprawling campus.
      Early Monday morning 05 June 1989, tanks roared up and down Changan Avenue, crushing hastily constructed barricades of food carts, bicycles and scraps of wood and metal. As the army trucks and tanks raced by, small knots of people cursed them, shaking their fists.
      "Why don't you go home," shouted a pedicab driver. "You don't belong here with your guns pointed at us." No sooner had the man spoken than one grinning soldier aimed his AK-47 rifle over the head of the driver and his passenger and fired several bursts. Both hit the ground, causing the soldier to roar with laughter. "Pigs!" yelled the driver.
      Gunfire rocked the city's embassy section at about 13:00 as troops moved north past the compound housing the American ambassador's residence and the press and cultural section of the US Embassy. "They're shooting right outside my office!" US Embassy spokesman Andy Koss suddenly shouted in the midst of an early afternoon telephone interview. "They're army trucks. They're heading north on the road next to my office. Oh goddam it! It's unbelievable. They've got guns ready, they're shooting up into the air."
      A column of 10 tanks and 10 armored personnel carriers that headed east out of Tian An Men Square around noon was stopped by a single man who stood in front of the lead tank, according to a Western witness. He climbed up on the tank, talked with someone inside, then climbed down and walked away alive.
      Late Monday morning, a crowd stood surrounding soldiers at the Jianguomen Bridge, where some people have been shot to death. Beginning around 1 p.m., gunfire was heard near the bridge. It was not immediately known whether people were injured or killed, but shortly after 1:30 p.m., an army truck was set on fire on the main highway near the bridge, and ammunition on the truck could be heard exploding. A witness said the truck had broken down and been left behind when a convoy of about 100 vehicles passed by. Someone took a crowbar, forced open the gas tank and dropped in the burning stuffing from a captured helmet. Protesters then moved on to at least seven other nearby abandoned army trucks and methodically set them on fire.
      About 30 tanks and 15 truckloads of soldiers took up fighting positions facing east along the Changan Avenue at the major Jianguomenwai intersection, and explosions and small-arms fire were heard later, witnesses said.
      One Western diplomat described seeing a solitary man crouching behind a bush laboriously making a Molotov cocktail in the early hours of Monday as an army convoy passed yards away from him. He finally made a direct hit on a tank.
      According to Chinese witnesses, a mob in southwest Beijing lynched an army officer and left his corpse hanging from a bridge. There have also been cases of students sheltering captured soldiers from the wrath of other citizens.
      But mainly the hatred of troops has brought a solidarity. "There has never been a unity among Beijing people as there is now," said one old man.
      "We cannot cry any more. It is too evil for tears," said a young woman shortly after troops shot two people dead near her home. "We can only fight and try to tell the world."      "Blood must be repaid with blood," read one slogan daubed on a wall on Monday. A diplomat commented: "So far the blood is flowing mostly one way."
1985 Pillai, mathematician
1976 Fourteen die as Teton Dam in Idaho bursts causing $1 billion in damage.
1970 José Antonio Montalvo Berbeo, político colombiano.
1940 Love, mathematician
1922 George W. Carmack, discoverer of Klondike gold.       ^top^
      George W. Carmack, the first person to discover gold along the Klondike River, dies in Vancouver, British Columbia. Carmack was born into a life of prospecting and mining. His father was a forty-niner who settled his family in Contra Costa County, California. When he was in his early 20s, Carmack followed his father's example, setting off on long prospecting journeys that took him from Juneau, Alaska, to the Yukon Territory of northwest Canada. There, he married a woman from the Tagish, a small tribe of Native Americans from the southern Yukon. Unlike many prospectors, Carmack was not consumed by the lust to find gold. For several years, he was happy to wander about the Yukon with his wife's people. When he did settle down in a cabin on the upper Yukon River, he enjoyed performing on an organ, reading periodicals like Scientific American, and occasionally writing sentimental poetry.
      In the summer of 1896, Carmack was fishing for salmon near the confluence of the Yukon and Klondike River. Accompanied by two Tagish friends, Carmack decided to explore Rabbit Creek, a tributary of the Klondike. As he did habitually, Carmack stopped occasionally to pan for signs of gold along the creek. At first, he found little of the telltale yellowish color in his pan. Then, on August 17, he stumbled across a deposit of gold so rich that he needed no pan to see it: Thumb-sized pieces of gold lay scattered about the creek bed. Carmack's two Tagish companions later said they had actually found the gold while Carmack was asleep under a birch tree.
      Regardless of who deserved the credit, the discovery sparked one of the last great western gold rushes. Thousands of would-be miners raced for the Klondike the following year. Partly because there was no other big news at the time, American newspapers exaggerated the reports of the gold fields in the Klondike. Steamship and outfitting companies did their part to promote the rush as well. Historians estimate that as many as 100,000 people set out for the Yukon gold fields, though perhaps only half that number actually reached the diggings. Unlike Carmack, few of the gold seekers were experienced in prospecting or mining, and many were turned back by sickness, starvation, and the bitter northern cold. Carmack was luckier. After making several valuable claims, he abandoned his wandering life with the Tagish and set to work mining gold. According to some reports, when he returned to the United States in 1898 he had found gold worth more than a million dollars. Now a wealthy and influential man, Carmack moved to Vancouver, B.C., where he married the daughter of a successful mining operator. No mention was made of his earlier Tagish wife--Carmack may have simply abandoned her. He died in Vancouver in 1922 at the age of 61.
1921 Georges Feydeau, comediógrafo francés.
1920 Nicolas Alexandrovitch Tarkhoff, Russian artist who died on 20 January 1871.
1915 Henri Gaundier~Brzeska, French artist born on 04 October 1891
1916 Horatio H Kitchener, 65, British General (Sudan)
1887 Hans von Marées, German artist born on 24 December 1837. — LINKS
1886 Antonio Varas de la Barra, político y abogado chileno.
1880 Karl Friedrich Lessing, German artist born on 15 February 1808.
1870 Unas 1200 personas en un incendio en Estambul, 60'000 personas quedan sin hogar.
1864 Gen William E "Grumble" Jones killed at Piedmont
1864 Hundreds of Yanks and Rebs at Battle of Piedmont.       ^top^
      At Piedmont, Viriginia, Union forces under General David Hunter rout a Confederate force led by General William "Grumble" Jones, giving the North their first real success in the 1864 Shenandoah campaign. As part of his attempt to knock out the Confederates in Virginia, Union General Ulysses S. Grant sent Franz Sigel to neutralize Rebel forces in the Shenandoah Valley in western Virginia. But Sigel did little to assist Grant, instead presiding over a Union defeat at New Market on 15 May. Hunter, who replaced Sigel, quickly moved toward the rail center at Staunton with some 11'000 soldiers and another 5000 cavalry troopers. Resisting him were about 5600 soldiers under the command of Jones and John D. Imboden, cobbled together from various Confederate units scattered about western Virginia. As the Union force marched south to Staunton, Imboden moved his part of the army to block the Yankees. They met north of Piedmont, where Hunter attacked on the morning of 05 June and forced Imboden to retreat. After being reinforced by Jones at Piedmont, the Confederates spread out to stop the Federals but left a small gap in their lines that later proved fatal. The Union troops pressed through the gap, and Jones was killed while leading an attempt to drive the Yankees back. The Confederate line was broken, and the Southerners retreated. Six hundred soldiers were killed or wounded, and another 1000 were captured; the Yankees lost 800. Rebel opposition evaporated, and Hunter entered Staunton the next day. The victory cleared the way for Union occupation of the upper Shenandoah Valley.
1854 Jenaro Pérez Villaamil, Spanish artist born on 03 February 1807.
1833 José María Castillo y Rada, abogado y político colombiano.
1826 Karl María Von Weber, compositor y pianista alemán.
Condamnés à mort par la Révolution: ^top^
1794 (17 prairial an II):
BOULART Charles Joseph, 30 ans, né à St Omer, célibataire, musicien, guillotiné à Arras.
LEFEBVRE Alexandre, 38 ans, né à Hermaville, cultivateur à Monchy le Preux, guillotiné à Arras.
Comme brigands de la Vendée, par la commission révolutionnaire de Mayenne:
LAINE René, laboureur. domicilié à St Germain-le-Filoux (Mayenne et Loire)
     ... domiciliés dans le département de la Mayenne:
BEAUJEAN Jean, laboureur, domicilié à la Brulatté, canton de Laval. — BOUVET Michel, aîné, domicilié à Changé, canton de Laval. — COULON Julien, laboureur, domicilié à Laval. — COULON Julien, laboureur, domicilié à Laval. — MARTEAU François, tisserand, domicilié à Laval. — SEGRETAIN Jacques, domicilié à St Ouen-Destoir. — SORIN Etienne (dit Lalande), tisserand, domicilié à Poiron.
Comme traîtres à la Patrie, par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Cambray (Nord):
BARALLE Marie Josephine Nedochel, ex noble, religieuse — BOULANGER Augustin, écrivain, domicilié à Cambray — CARPENTIER Jacques, père, cultivateur — CARPENTIER Amand, fils, cultivateur — DELECOLE Jean Charles, journalier — PEUGNIEZ Pierre Joseph, ex cordelier, domicilié à Cambray
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
MEZERAI Paul, employé aux domaines nationaux, 45 ans, né à Montargis (Loiret), domicilié à Paris, comme complice d'un complot formé dans la maison d'arrêt du Port-Libre où il était détenu, pour exciter à l'insurrection.
VILLENEUVE Louis Henri, (dit Trans), colonel du ci-devant régiment de Roussillon, 59 ans, natif de Marseille, département de la Seine [sic], comme convaincu d'avoir conçu un projet de soulèvement de la part des détenus avec lui dans la maison d'arrêt de Pont-Libre.
PERRIER Marie Madeleine, veuve Fonsenay, 57 ans, native de Villiers (Orne), ex noble, domiciliée à Vincennes (Seine), comme conspiratrice, ayant dit, en parlant des despotes coalisés; voilà donc les nôtres qui s'avancent à force, et dans quinze jours il n'y aura plus de république.
DEGUE J., 32 ans, né à Passy (Mont Blanc), frotteur, domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d’être complice d’un complot contre le peuple français tendant au rétablissement de la royauté.
     ... comme conspirateurs:
GUILLER Elisabeth Thérèse, (dit Denouac), ex noble, 45 ans, née à Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais (Eure et Loire), domiciliée à Bourg-de-l'Egalité (Seine) [ci-devant Bourg-la-Reine?]
MERAUD Jean Antoine, 60 ans, né à Neclure (Puy-de-Dôme), ex curé constitutionnel de la Meilleraye, domicilié à Mailleraye (Sarthe)
ARMAND Louis, garde-chasse du ci-devant duc Montemart, et vigneron, domicilié à Paris.
ROQUILLE Joseph Dominique, (dit Lieutaud), homme de lettres, domicilié à Paris, comme missionnaire de faux assignats, par le tribunal criminel du département.de la Seine.
Comme fabricateurs de faux assignats:
BREMONT Amand Jules, entrepreneur des coches-d'eau, domicilié à Champigny, canton de Melun (Seine et Marne), par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
JUILLET Amédée A. L., ancien capitaine de cavalerie, domicilié à Paris
MEAUX Charles Laurent (dit St Marc), négociant, domicilié à Paris, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Seine.
RICHEMONT Pierre Théodore (dit Villote), homme de loi, domicilié à St Mandé (Seine), par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
1781 Noël Hallé, French artist born on 02 September 1711.
1716 Roger Cotes, mathematician.
1568 Willem Key, Flemish artist born in the period 1515-1520.
--221 -BC- Chu Yuan China's poet drowns
Births which occurred on a June 05:
1977 Apple II released       ^top^
      The Apple II personal computer goes on sale. The machine, which sells for $1298, becomes the first commercially successful personal computer. Developer Steve Wozniak had created the Apple I to impress his friends in the Homebrew Computer Club in the early 1970s. Wozniak's sidekick, Steve Jobs, urged his friend to create a computer they could sell, and the two started Apple Computer in Jobs' garage. The Apple II boasted a color screen and a built-in version of the BASIC computer language
1954 Bonjour, tristesse, de Françoise Sagan.se publica creando gran escándalo en Francia.
1951 Vehicle top with removable panels       ^top^
      Designer Gordon M. Buehrig is issued a US patent for his "vehicle top with removable panels," an invention that would eventually appear as a "T-top" on the 1968 Chevrolet Corvette Stingray.
      Buehrig was a member of America’s first generation of automobile stylists. As a boy, he had always dreamed of designing cars, so at the age of seventeen he took a summer job with the Yellow Cab Company in Chicago in order to be around the greatest variety of cars possible. He held the job until the company discovered he was under-aged. Before he left Chicago, Buehrig called Clarence Wexelburg, designer for the custom body-building C.P. Kimball Company, and asked him how he should go about becoming a car designer. Wexelburg directed him to take classes in drafting, wood and metal shop, and art. Buehrig pursued all three at Bradley Polytechnic before leaving for Detroit in search of an apprenticeship, which he found at Packard. His inexperience limited him to unexciting work as a body panel designer, but it was at Packard that he made valuable connections in the design industry and where he first discovered Le Corbusier’s book, Toward a New Architectrure, a text that would influence Buehrig’s own aesthetic sense for the rest of his life.
      In 1928 Buehrig was the fourth man hired by Harley Earl for GM’s new Art and Color Section, the first GM department dedicated solely to design concerns. Buehrig didn’t stay long there, just long enough to share Earl’s frustration with the execution of the Art department’s designs. Of the 1929 Buick, the "pregnant Buick," Buehrig objectd: "Harley Earl’s original design was a masterpiece, but Art and Color was new and he couldn’t swing a lot of weight." Leaving GM’s fledgling Art Department may have been a mistake for Buehrig, as Earl would rapidly establish the department as the industry’s first design dynasty. But just as likely Buehrig’s inventiveness would have been harnessed by Earl, and while Buehrig would have become rich, he might never have achieved the boldness of his later designs.
      Buehrig, just twenty-four, left GM to become chief body designer at Stutz before moving on to the even more prestigious role of chief designer at Duesenberg. At the age of twenty-five he began designing America’s most high-profile car bodies. His crowning achievement came in 1936 with the Cord 810. Heavily influenced by Le Corbusier’s designs, the 810 had disappearing headlights, a hidden gas cap, and venetian blind louvers that accentuated the car’s lean "coffin-nosed" hood. It was an affordable future car. In 1951 the Museum of Modern Art picked the Cord 810 as one of eight automobiles selected worldwide to be exhibited as pieces of art. Curator Arthur Drexel wrote Buehrig that in the museum’s view, the 810 was "the outstanding American contribution to automobile design." Buehrig quietly changed the way cars look today. Ironically, his former employer Harley Earl would follow Buehrig’s work closely, often incorporating his innovations into GM’s designs. It was Buehrig who first erased the running board from the American car… and Earl who first got the credit.
1949 Ken Follett       ^top^
      Bestselling thriller writer Ken Follett is born in Wales to a devout Christian family that does not allow young Ken to watch TV, see movies, or listen to the radio. As a result of his strict media diet during childhood, Follett became a voracious reader. After college, he became a reporter for the newspaper in Cardiff, Wales, his hometown, and later reported for a paper in London. Deciding he wasn't a very good reporter, he tried his hand at novels after a friend received a 200-pound advance (less than $400) for a thriller. Coincidentally, Follett needed about 200 pounds to fix his broken car, so he wrote a thriller, which was picked up by Everest Publishers. Although his advance was large enough to fix his car, the book flopped, and Follett went to work for Everest. He wrote 10 novels during the next four years, finally breaking through with The Eye of the Needle. He wrote many more bestselling spy thrillers, then branched out with historical fiction such as Pillars of the Earth, about cathedral builders in medieval Europe, and On Wings of Eagles, a nonfiction account of Ross Perot's mission to rescue employees trapped in Iran.
1938 Marion Chapman smallest known premature baby to survive (280 g)
1917 Maurice Duverger, politólogo francés.
1900 Dennis Gabor inventor (holography (3D laser photography))
1898 Federico García Lorca Spain, poet/dramatist (Blood Wedding)
1894 Mané-Katz, Ukrainian-born French painter of Jewish life, who died on 08 September 1962. — MORE ON MANÉ~KATZ AT ART “4” JUNERussian Shtetl
1887 Ruth Benedict US, anthropologist (Patterns of Culture)
Keynes1883 John Maynard Keynes, in Cambridge, England.       ^top^
     He would grow up to be the groundbreaking economist (and therefore mathematician) who argued for the benefits of full employment and active government involvement in economic matters. Keynes's early career centered on fiscally minded government work, both at home and in India. Following the close of World War I, Keynes began writing about various economic issues, publishing all-too prescient attacks on the decision to saddle Germany with heavy reparations. During this same period Keynes also began his increasingly critical investigation into then dominant fiscal policies, including "laissez-faire" economics.

      By the early 1930s much of the Western world was struggling through dire economic slumps, which only reinforced Keynes’s belief that governments, rather than "natural" fiscal forces, should be relied upon to steer national finances. Keynes articulated these beliefs in General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1935-1936), a landmark work that informed Roosevelt's interventionist approach to ending the Depression.

      In 1944, the US government called on Keynes to partake in the Bretton Woods Conference and help draft the blueprint for the post- World War II global fiscal order. Whatever his past success in shaping economic policy, Keynes's voice was largely drowned out by American leaders. Just two years after the conference, Keynes died in Sussex, England, on 21 April 1946.

KEYNES ONLINE: The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919) — General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money
1882 Antonin Prochaska (or Prochazka), Czech artist who died on 09 June 1945.
1881 Georg “Jerzy” Merkel, Austrian artist who died in 1976.
1878 Francisco (Pancho) Villa Mexico, bandit, revolutionary, guerrilla leader
1867 Miguel Abadía y Méndez, escritor y político colombiano.
1851 Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly       ^top^
     The novel begins to appear in serial form in the Washington National Era, an abolitionist weekly. Harriet Beecher Stowe's anti-slavery story would be published in forty installments over the next ten months. For her story Mrs. Stowe was paid $300.
      Although the weekly had a limited circulation, its audience increased as reader after reader passed their copy along to another. In March 1852, a Boston publisher decided to issue Uncle Tom's Cabin as a book and it became an instant best seller. Three hundred thousand copies were sold the first year, and about two million copies were sold worldwide by 1857. For one three-month period Stowe reportedly received $10'000 in royalties. Across the nation people discussed the novel and hotly debated the most pressing socio-political issue dramatized in its narrative, slavery.
      Because Uncle Tom's Cabin so polarized the abolitionist and anti-abolitionist debate, some claim it to be one of the causes of the Civil War. Indeed, when President Lincoln received its author, Harriet Beecher Stowe, at the White House in 1862, legend has it he exclaimed, "So this is the little lady who made this big war?"

  • Read Documentary History of Slavery in the United States from the collection African American Perspectives, 1818-1907 for a concise review of slavery in the US between 1774 and 1850, when the Fugitive Slave Act was passed.

  • Search American Memory on the term Uncle Tom's Cabin to find a wide variety of material concerning the book, subsequent theatrical adaptations, and related music. See, for example, the musical pieces "Eliza's Flight," published in 1852 and "Eva to Her Papa."

  • Search on the term Harriet Beecher Stowe in The 19th Century in Print: Books to find material written by and concerning Mrs. Stowe. Among these items is a review of Uncle Tom's Cabin, entitled "Uncle Tom in England" from the London Times of Friday 03 September 1852.

  • A search on the term slavery in Narratives of the American South, 1860-1920 will reveal many non-fiction accounts of slavery. Tupelo, by John Hill Aughey, describes the plight of abolitionists living in the South at the time of secession while quoting a Southern perspective on slavery.

  • From Slavery to Freedom: The African-American Pamphlet Collection, 1824-1909 presents 397 pamphlets published from 1824 through 1909 by African-American authors and others who wrote about slavery, African colonization, Emancipation, Reconstruction, and related topics. Search the Subject Index to find a wide variety of materials including personal accounts, orations, reports, and speeches.
  • 1823 George Thorndike Angell Mass, lawyer (ASPCA)
    1819 John Couch Adams, mathematician, astronomer, co-discover (Neptune)
    1814 Wantzel, mathematician
    1723 Adam Smith (baptized), in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. Social philosopher and political economist.       ^top^
    Adam Smith      Known primarily for a single work, The Wealth of Nations (1776), the first comprehensive system of political economy, Adam Smith is more properly regarded as a social philosopher whose economic writings constitute only the capstone to an overarching view of political and social evolution. If his masterwork is viewed in relation to his earlier lectures on moral philosophy and government, as well as to allusions in The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) to a work he hoped to write on “the general principles of law and government, and of the different revolutions they have undergone in the different ages and periods of society,” then The Wealth of Nations may be seen not merely as a treatise on economics but also as a partial exposition of a much larger scheme of historical evolution. Adam Smith died on 17 July 1790 in Edinburgh
    ADAM SMITH ONLINE: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of NationsAn Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of NationsAn Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations The Theory of Moral SentimentsThe Theory of Moral Sentiments
    1718 Thomas Chippendale England, furniture maker (baptized)
    Holidays Columbia : Thanksgiving Day / Denmark : Constitution Day (1849, 1953) / Ireland : Bank Day - ( Monday ) / New Zealand : Queen's Birthday - ( Monday ) / Western Australia : Foundation Day (1838) - ( Monday )

    Religious Observances RC, Luth, Ang : St Boniface, bishop/martyr/apostle to Germany / Ang : first Book of Common Prayer / Santos Doroteo, Bonifacio, Marcelino, Fausto y Florencio.

    Thoughts for the day: “Love is blind, to everything except fat.”
    “Fat is blind to everything, especially food.”
    “Justice is blind, especially to the rights of the poor.”
    updated Thursday 13-Mar-2003 0:07 UT
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