CURRENT UPDATES: TODAY2 TO TODAY+2
• Vietnamese children napalmed... • Israel attacks US ship... • US troops start leaving Vietnam... • Muhammad is born... • Tom Paine is born... • Boy king dies in Révolution's prison ... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Viet vets support Nixon... • Allies invade Syria and Lebanon... • MLK assassin arrested... • UK and US troops meet on D~Day+1... • Massacre of Japanese school children... • Hannibal...
a June 08:
2004 Transit of Venus (between Earth and Sun) occurs.
2002 Terry Lynn Barton, 38, US Forest Service part-time employee, alone on fire-spotting patrol in the Pike National Forest of central Colorado, reports that she smelled smoke and found a 6x6-meter fire and tried in vain to extinguish it.
[< 16 Jun 2002 photo: Barton at site of fire's start].
In fact, as some foresters and firefighters have done before in order to appear as heroes, she started it intentionally. Barton is arrested on 16 June. The fire would become the Hayman wildfire (named after a ghost town in the area), the worst in Colorado history, its smoke clearly visible from weather satellites, lasting several weeks despite more than 2000 firefighters' efforts to extinguish it, burning 500 square kilometers of forest and dozens of homes between Colorado Springs and the suburbs southwest of Denver, and forcing thousands out of their homes.
[above: 12 Jun 2002 photo: a counter-fire on Horse Mountain near West Glenwood, Colorado]
|2001 Belgian court finds 4 Rwandans
guilty of genocide in Rwanda.
At the Brussels Palais de Justice, in a trial that human rights campaigners hail as a precedent for legal action against suspected war criminals, wherever they may hide, the four two Benedictine nuns, a factory owner and a university professor are convicted and sentenced to prison.
Sister Gertrude (Consolata Mukangango) [top image below, right, arriving in court today], 42, and Sister Maria Kisito (Julienne Makubutera) [same image, left], 36, were found guilty of all homicide counts of against them stemming from several days of slaughter at their convent in southern Rwanda, where up to 7000 people were burned and butchered to death. Gertrude's sentence is 15 years, and Maria Kisito's is 12 years.
Alphonse Higaniro [bottom left image below], 52, a factory owner and former government minister, was also found guilty on all counts and sentenced to 20 years in prison, while the fourth defendant, university professor Vincent Ntezimana [bottom right image below], 40, was judged guilty on five counts of homicide and cleared on five others. Ntezimana is sentenced to 12 years in prison. The two men were accused with helping to plan and carry out the slayings of members of Rwanda's Tutsi minority during 13 weeks of violence that killed more than 500'000 Tutsis and Hutu moderates.
The trial, which lasted almost eight weeks, was the first in which a jury of citizens from one country judged defendants in war crimes committed in another country. A 1993 Belgian law gives local courts jurisdiction over violations of the Geneva Convention on war crimes, no matter where they occurred.
Prosecutors claimed the two nuns encouraged and collaborated with the Hutu mob that repeatedly attacked Tutsis seeking shelter at the Sovu convent in the green hills of southern Rwanda. Witnesses told the court the two nuns called in militias to clear the Tutsis from the convent grounds. They were accused of supplying gasoline to the mob that burned some 500 people to death as they cowered in the convent's garage, and of guiding the killers to the hiding places of doomed Tutsi men, women and children.
Ntezimana and Higaniro were accused of being Hutu extremists who virulently opposed proposals to share power with Tutsi rebels and responded by helping plan and carry out the genocide in their southern region. The four fled to Belgium after the rebels took control of Rwanda in July 1994 and put an end to the killings of Tutsis.
Presidential elections in Iran. Popular reformist Mohammad Khatami, 57,
wins a second 4-year term. However in Iran, the president holds limited
powers. The final say on all state matters rests with Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
and his hand-picked group of theocrats, whose control extends to institutions
such as the judiciary and security forces. They have closed 40 reformist
newspapers and jailed many reformers and intellectuals. [photo: Khatami
casting his vote today >]
1999 Hannibal by Thomas Harris reaches the bookstores ^top^
Some 1.3 million copies of Hannibal, the final book in the Hannibal Lecter series by Thomas Harris, arrive at bookstores around the country. Hannibal quickly tops the bestseller charts, despite--or perhaps because of--an intensely gruesome plot. Hannibal Lecter, the brilliant psychiatrist/serial killer with a taste for human flesh, first appeared in Harris' 1981 book, Red Dragon, as a minor character. He played a larger role in The Silence of the Lambs (1988), which sold some 10 million copies and was made into an Academy Award-winning movie in 1991, starring Anthony Hopkins and Jodie Foster.
Harris was born in 1940 in Richmond, Mississippi, the son of a biology teacher and an electrical engineer. In 1968, he took a job in New York with the Associated Press. While working for the news agency, Harris and two friends had an idea for a novel about hijackers seizing the Goodyear blimp during the Super Bowl. Harris turned the idea into the bestselling Black Sunday (1975). He has turned out bestsellers ever since. Like his antihero Hannibal Lecter, Harris is a gourmet chef with a taste for fine wines. He divides his time between Sag Harbor, Miami, and Paris.
1998 Cracker sales crumble at Nabisco ^top^
Biscuit behemoth Nabisco Holdings Corp. announces moves that suggested that its profits for 1998 would sag well below expectations. However, Nabisco's stringent fiscal measures were hardly a laughing matter: along with taking a $406 million restructuring charge, Nabisco revealed that it was slashing 3000 jobs, or roughly 6% of its workforce. Despite the severity of these moves, the cracker king was reluctant to dwell on its dwindling bottom line or the consequences for the laid-off workers. Instead, Nabisco officials focused on plans to ramp up the company's marketing budget. Wall Street, however, wasn't swayed by talk of "aggressive" advertising campaigns: market analysts blanched at Nabisco's news, wondering aloud if the company would also be forced to lop off its margarine subsidiaries.
1986 Kurt Waldheim, candidato conservador a la presidencia de Austria, gana la elección por mayoría absoluta, en la segunda vuelta.
1979 The Source, first computer public information service, goes online
1978 Through the voice of its president Spencer W. Kimball, the Mormon Church reverses a 148-year- long policy of spiritual discrimination against African-American leadership within the denomination.
1978 A jury in Clark County, Nev., ruled the so-called "Mormon will," purportedly written by the late billionaire Howard Hughes, was a forgery.
1974 En Canadá, el Partido liberal de Pierre Trudeau obtiene la mayoría absoluta en las elecciones legislativas.
1970 España firma un acuerdo preferente con la CEE.
US troop withdrawal from Vietnam begins
During a meeting on Midway Island in the Pacific, US President Richard M. Nixon and South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu announce the imminent withdrawal of 25,000 US troops from Vietnam, and emphasize that all remaining US grounds troops will eventually be replaced by South Vietnamese forces.
In 1961, US President John F. Kennedy had sent the first large force of US military personnel to Vietnam to bolster the ineffectual autocratic regime of South Vietnam against the Communist North. Three years later, with the South Vietnamese government crumbling, President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered limited bombing raids on North Vietnam and Congress authorized the use of US troops.
By 1965, North Vietnamese offensives left President Johnson with two choices: escalate US involvement or withdraw. Johnson ordered the former, and troop levels soon jumped to over 300'000 as US air forces commenced the largest bombing campaign in history. Over the next few years, the extended length of the war, the high number of US casualties, and the exposure of US involvement in war crimes such as the massacre at My Lai helped to turn many in the United States against the Vietnam War, and created a perilous national division.
In the spring of 1969, as protests in the United States against the war escalated, US troop strength in the war-torn country reached its peak at nearly 550'000. In June, Richard Nixon, the new US president, announced the beginning of US troop withdrawal, but intensified bombing in an effort to salvage the embattled war effort. Large US troop withdrawals continued in the early 1970s, but President Nixon expanded air and ground operations into Cambodia and Laos in attempts to block enemy supply routes along Vietnam’s borders.
This expansion of the war, which accomplished few positive results, led to new waves of protests in the United States and elsewhere. Finally, in 1973, representatives of the United States, North and South Vietnam, and the Vietcong signed a peace agreement in Paris, ending the US military involvement in the Vietnam War. By the end of 1973, the US contingent in Vietnam had shrunk to only fifty military advisors. On 30 April 1975, the last of these and other US nationals were airlifted out of Vietnam as Communist forces launched their final triumphant offensive into South Vietnam. The Vietnam War was the longest and most unpopular foreign war in US history, cost fifty-eight thousand American lives, many more lives of Vietnamese soldiers from both North and South, uncounted lives of Vietnamese civilians, and long-lasting damage to the environment in Vietnam..
Richard Nixon anuncia la retirada de Vietnam de 25'000 soldados estadounidenses.
|1968 Robert Kennedy buried
Four years after winning a Senate seat in New York, Robert F. Kennedy declared himself a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination. Kennedy and Eugene McCarthy, both antiwar candidates, battled it out in a close primary race in California, and Kennedy came through by a narrow margin. At his victory celebration in the early morning of June 5, he was shot by Palestinian fanatic Sirhan Sirhan. Critically wounded, Kennedy died thirty-two hours later.
On 08 June 1968, a funeral service is held for Kennedy at New York's St. Patrick's Cathedral. Later that day, his casket is solemnly taken by train for burial at Arlington National Cemetery, the final resting-place of his assassinated older brother, John F. Kennedy.
Three days after falling prey to an assassin in California, Senator Robert F. Kennedy is laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia, just 30 meters from the grave of his assassinated older brother, President John F. Kennedy. Robert Kennedy, born in Brookline, Massachusetts, in 1925, interrupted his studies at Harvard University to serve in the US Navy during World War II. He was legal counsel for various Senate subcommittees during the 1950s and in 1960 served as the manager of his brother's successful presidential campaign. Appointed attorney general by President Kennedy, he proved a vigorous member of the cabinet, zealously prosecuting cases relating to civil rights while closely advising the president on domestic and foreign issues.
After John F. Kennedy's assassination in 1963, Robert joined President Lyndon B. Johnson's administration but resigned in 1964 to run successfully in New York for a Senate seat. He became a leader of liberal Democrats in Congress and voiced criticism of the war in Vietnam. In 1968, he was urged by many of his supporters to run for president as an anti-war and socially progressive Democratic. Hesitant until he saw positive primary returns for fellow anti-war candidate Eugene McCarthy, he announced his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination on 16 March 1968. Fifteen days later, President Johnson announced that he would not seek reelection, and Vice President Hubert Humphrey became the key Democratic hopeful, with McCarthy and Kennedy trailing closely behind. Kennedy conducted an energetic campaign and on 04 June 1968, won a major victory in the California primary. He had won five out of six primaries and seemed a shoo-in for the Democratic nomination and, some thought, the presidency. Shortly after midnight, Kennedy gave a victory speech to his supporters in the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. At 00:50, while making his way to a press conference by a side exit, he was shot three times in a hail of gunfire that wounded five others. One bullet entered Kennedy's brain.
The shooter, a Palestinian drifter named Sirhan Sirhan, had a .22 revolver wrested from his grip and was promptly arrested. Kennedy was rushed to the hospital, where he fought for his life for the next 24 hours. At 01:44 on the morning of 06 June, he died. He was 42 years old.
His assassination came only two months after civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., was shot and killed in Memphis, Tennessee. Like King, Robert Kennedy had advocated social reform, defended the rights of minorities, and called for an end to the Vietnam War. The loss was devastating to many people in the US and was made only more tragic by memories of his older brother's assassination five years earlier. On the evening of 06 June, Kennedy's body was brought to St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York City, and the next day a line of mourners 25 blocks long waited to pass by his coffin.
On Saturday morning, 08 June, thousands attended a funeral Mass at St. Patrick's. The diverse collection of mourners listened to Leonard Bernstein conduct a Mahler symphony and Andy Williams sing Kennedy's favorite anthem, "The Battle Hymn of the Republic." Edward M. Kennedy, Robert's younger brother and a US senator from Massachusetts, delivered an eulogy: "My brother need not be idolized or enlarged in death beyond what he was in life. [He should] be remembered simply as a good and decent man, who saw wrong and tried to right it, saw suffering and tried to heal it, saw war and tried to stop it. Those of us who loved him, and who take him to his rest today, pray that what he was to us, and what he wished for others, will someday come to pass for all the world. As he said many times, in many parts of this nation, to those he touched and who sought to touch him: "Some men see things as they are and say, 'Why?' I dream of things that never were and say, 'Why not?'" On Saturday afternoon, Kennedy's coffin was taken by funeral train from New York to Washington. Hundreds of thousands of mourners, perhaps more than a million, lined the tracks. In New Jersey, two bystanders who jumped the tracks were killed by a train passing in the other direction. The funeral train arrived at Washington's Union Station shortly after 21:00. A motorcade then took Robert F. Kennedy's body to Arlington National Cemetery for the only night-time burial in the cemetery's history
assassination suspect arrested in London
James Earl Ray, a citizen of Memphis, Tennessee, with a history of petty crime, is arrested in London, England, and charged with the assassination of African-American civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr.
On April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee, King was fatally wounded by a sniper’s bullet while standing on the balcony outside his second-story room at the Motel Lorraine. Three months later, Ray is arrested in London and extradited to the United States. US authorities reported that Ray’s fingerprints matched those found on a rifle at the scene of the crime and that some of Ray’s belongings had also been found along with the murder weapon. In addition, the authorities produced an eyewitness, Charles Stephens, who claimed that he had seen Ray leaving the boarding house from where the shot was allegedly fired.
After his extradition, Ray maintained his innocence, arguing that he had not killed King but had been set up as part of a larger conspiracy. He claimed that shortly before the assassination he had been approached by a mysterious man named "Raoul" who recruited him into a smuggling enterprise. After King’s assassination, whether on a smuggling mission or on a flight from the assassination investigators, Ray made his way to London via Atlanta, Canada, and Portugal.
Back in the United States, Ray spent eight months in prison while investigators apparently gathered more conclusive evidence against him. His first and second attorney both pressured him to enter a guilty plea, and on 10 March 1969, Ray finally agreed, fearing that an innocent plea under his current counsel would result in his execution. Later in the day, he was sentenced to ninety-nine years in prison.
Just three days later, he hired a new attorney and filed a motion to vacate his plea and obtain a trial. The motion was denied, as were his dozens of other requests for a jury trial over the next twenty-nine years. In the last decades of his life, inconsistencies in the case against him and in the official analysis of the King assassination led some to support Ray’s theory that he was a scapegoat in a larger conspiracy.
During the 1990s, the family of Martin Luther King, Jr., met with Ray and joined him in unsuccessfully petitioning the government to grant him a jury trial. Coretta Scott King, the widow of the assassinated civil rights leader, called the death of James Earl Ray on 23 April 1998, "a great tragedy," because it removes the best hope of reaching certainty as to whether he was the assassin of her husband.
1962 Acuerdo URSS-EE.UU. para investigaciones espaciales en el ámbito meteorológico.
1953 The US Supreme Court rules that restaurants in the District of Columbia may not refuse to serve Blacks.
1950 Tropas norcoreanas cruzan el paralelo 38, la frontera impuesta por los aliados en la conferencia de Yalta, e invaden el territorio de Corea del Sur, lo que da comienzo a la guerra.
1948 El pintor francés Georges Braque obtiene el Gran Premio de la Bienal de Venecia. Georges Braque was born on 13 May 1882, in Argenteuil, France. He died on 31 August 1963 in Paris. He was one of the important revolutionaries of 20th-century art who, together with Pablo Picasso, developed Cubism. His paintings consist primarily of still lifes, remarkable for their robust construction, low-keyed color harmonies, and serene, meditative quality (e.g., Still Life with a Mandolin, 1935).
ART BY BRAQUE ONLINE: Absinthe Anvers Poissons Noirs Paysage à l'Estaque Viaduct à l'Estaque Port Normand Le Portugais Violoniste Château de la Roche-Guyon Le Jour
1946 Ahmed Sukarno convoca a la resistencia en Indonesia.
1940 Discovery of element 93, neptunium, announced
1937 World's largest flower blooms in NY Botanical Garden, 360 cm calla lily
1930 El príncipe Carlos es proclamado rey de Rumanía por la Asamblea Nacional de su país.
1929 Se forma el segundo gobierno laborista liderado por Ramsay MacDonald en Gran Bretaña.
1928 El general Chiang Kai-Shek ocupa Pekín y se asegura el control militar de China.
1918 Nova Aquila, brightest nova since Kepler's nova of 1604, discovered
1917 Primera Guerra Mundial: Un cuerpo expedicionario estadounidense, al mando del general Pershing, desembarca en Liverpool.
1915 US Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan resigns in a disagreement over US handling of the sinking of the Lusitania.
1900 Start of Sherlock Holmes The Adventure of the 6 Napoleons
1889 Start of Sherlock Holmes Adventure The Boscombe Valley Mystery
1864 Abraham Lincoln nominated for a second term as US President
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Valley Campaign-Battle of Cross Keys, Virginia
1861 People of Tennessee vote to secede from the Union
1824 Washing machine patented by Noah Cushing of Quebec
1815 39 German states unite under the Act of Confederation
1793 BEDOS Marie, veuve, domiciliée à la Panouze, canton de Mende (Lozère), est condamnée à la déportation,par le tribunal criminel du département de l'Aveyron
1789 The Bill of Rights, which led to first 10 amendments of the US Constitution, was proposed by James Madison.
1786 first commercially-made ice cream sold (NY)
1783 Laki Volcano in southern Iceland begins 8-month eruption. It was one of the most violent volcanic eruptions recorded.
1536 Ten Articles of Religion are published by the English clergy, in support of Henry VIII's Declaration of Supremacy. The Anglican Church has begun defining its doctrinal distinctions, after breaking with Roman Catholicism.
0536 St Silverius begins his reign as Pope
0452 Italy invaded by Attila the Hun .
which occurred on a June 08:
2002 Staff Sgt. Eyal Shorek, 23, his 9-months pregnant wife Yael, First Sgt. Major Shalom Mordechai, 35, and one of two Palestinians attacking the Karmei Tzur enclave settlement, in the southern Gush Etzion region, before dawn. The two terrorists reach an unfenced cluster of 15 trailer homes in Karmei Tzur's southern side, illegally set up more than a year earlier. Two untrained soldiers from an artillery unit order the intruders to stop. The terrorists shoot at them, split up, and race toward the trailer homes. Eyal Shorek is shot as he leaves his trailer, holding a gun; then his head is hit with an axe. His wife is shot dead. A reservist unit arrives on the scene and kills the killer of the Shorek couple. Mordechai [< photo] is mortally wounded in this gunfight; three reservists and two settlers are injured. The second terrorist is wounded and flees, taking Shorek's gun. Oren Avitan, 33, a reservist medic, was in an army jeep with Shalom Mordechai at the time of the attack. He said: "We heard about the infiltration at Karmei Tzur and we raced there, but the terrorist ambushed us. He held his fire until Shalom opened the jeep's door. Shalom was hit by bullets in the stomach, I was wounded in the leg. Shalom didn't stop bleeding. `I don't want to die,' he said. `Take care of the children.'" Shalom Mordechai worked for Bezeq (the Israel Telecommunication Corp.), was married, and had two sons, aged five and nine. He lived near his parents in Nahariya, where he was born. He had three siblings.
2002 A’hed Almubasher, 21, Palestinian shot at the Gaza beach by Israeli troops who claim that, loaded with explosives, he was attempting to swim from Gaza to Tel-Aviv to perform a suicide bombing.
2002 Randy Scott, 42, and Andy Scott, 41, shot by their mother Carol Carr, to end their suffering from Huntington's disease, which is passed on genetically in the family of her factory worker husband Hoyt Scott, who was in his 30's and had three sons when he learned that he had Huntington's, and for whom Carol, a low-level phone company employee, cared for as he became unable to move, swallow, talk or think, until he died in 1995. By then Randy and Andy had the disease and Carol cared for them, giving them medicine, feeding and bathing them, getting them to the bathroom, coping with Randy's violent moods. Her last son, James Scott, 38, is in the early stages of the disease.
2000 Jeff MacNally, 52, in Baltimore, Md., Pulitzer Prize-winning cartoonist
2000 Arturo Suspe, 87, of a heart attack as he waited in line in Bogotá to collect a government certificate to prove he was still alive and therefore entitled to continue drawing his $133 monthly pension. Local authorities in central Cundinamarca province, which includes Bogota, introduced the certificate in a move to crack down on cheats who were receiving pensions issued in the name of dead people. Between when the "survival certificate" was introduced in late Novembe 1999 and June 2000, more than 7000 elderly people joined long lines to obtain them. Colombians routinely face lengthy bureaucratic procedures to receive anything from pensions to driving licenses. The bureaucracy has fueled widespread corruption among officials who demand illegal payments to reduce waiting times.
1995 Juan Carlos Onganía, ex presidente argentino.
1993 Severo Sarduy, escritor cubano.
1990 José Figueres Ferrer, ex presidente de Costa Rica.
1988 Lyndon, mathematician.
Vietnamese children, napalmed.
South Vietnamese forces follow flee behind terrified children, including Phan Thai Kim Phuc, 9, center (she is crying "Nong qua! Nong qua!" Too hot! Too hot!), as they run a street near Trang Bang, Vietnam, 50 km north of Saigon, after an aerial napalm attack by a South Vietnamese airplane on the running group assumed to be Viet Cong. The terrified girl had ripped off her burning clothes while fleeing. An allied plane accidentally dropped its flaming napalm on South Vietnamese civilians. [photo >] Two of Kim's 6 brothers (aged 9 months, and 3 years) and two cousins were killed in the same attack (the child on her right and ahead of her in the photo is another of her brothers).
After taking the picture, photographer Nick Ut (who would win a Pulitzer prize for that picture) rushes Kim to the nearest hospital, where doctors try to save her. She is too badly wounded, but she is transferred to the elite Barsky burn clinic in Saigon, where, for months, she would hover between life and death. It would take fourteen months, seventeen operations, the intervention of another photographer, Perry Kretz of Stern magazine, and numerous trips abroad for plastic surgery, before she could assume a "normal" life after having suffered third-degree burns over more than half of her body..
She starts pre-med but in 1984 the Vietnamese Communist government exploit her as their poster girl in propaganda films. In 1986 they allow her to go to Cuba to continue her education. Still, her every move is monitored. Then she marries Bui Huy Toan, a North Vietnamese student in Cuba, and defects in Gander, Newfoundland, in October 1992, while returning to Cuba from their honeymoon in Moscow, when the plane stops to refuel.
She becomes a Canadian citizen, and establishes in 1997 the Kim Foundation, to help child victims of war. [< photo Nick Ut and Kim Phuc in 1999, at a memorial service for photographers killed in the Vietnam War]
Kim Phuc's address at the US Vietnam War Memorial on 11 November 1996
I am very happy to be with you today. I thank you for giving me the opportunity to talk and meet with you on this Veterans' Day.
As you know I am the little girl who was running to escape from the napalm fire. I do not want to talk about the war because I cannot change history.
I only want you to remember the tragedy of war in order to do things to stop fighting and killing around the world.
I have suffered a lot from both physical and emotional pain. Sometimes I thought I could not live, but God saved me and gave me faith and hope.
Even if I could talk face to face with the pilot who dropped the bombs, I would tell him we cannot change history but we should try to do good things for the present and for the future to promote peace.
I did not think that I could marry nor have any children because of my burns, but now I have a wonderful husband and lovely son* and a happy family.
Dear friends, I just dream one day people all over the world can live in real peaceno fighting, and no hostility. We should work together to build peace and happiness for all people in all nations.
Thank you so much for letting me be a part of this important day. [*Her son's name is Huan. The word in Vietnamese means Prospects. Later she had a second child].
1948 Albanese, mathematician.
1943 Guillermo Valencia, poeta y político colombiano.
1935 Brill, mathematician
1876 George Sand, in Nohant, France, woman author.
1852 Antonio Morales Galavis, prócer de la Independencia colombiana.
1849 Leendert de Koningh, Dutch artist born on 12 April 1777.
1845 Andrew Jackson, séptimo presidente de los Estados Unidos de América. Andrew Jackson, seventh president of the United States, in Nashville, Tenn.
Paine, 72, dies a poor man, in New York.
US revolutionary leader, political essayist, philosopher : "These are the times that try men's souls."
Paine was born in England on 29 January 1737 and worked as a corsetmaker in his teens. He also worked as a sailor and schoolteacher before becoming a prominent pamphleteer. In 1774, Paine arrived in Philadelphia and came to support American independence.
On 10 January 1776 Thomas Paine published his pamphlet Common Sense, setting forth the arguments for American independence. Pamphlets were an important medium for the spread of ideas in the 16th through 19th centuries. His 47-page pamphlet sold some 500'000 copies and had a powerful influence on American opinion. Paine served in the US Army and worked for the Committee of Foreign Affairs before returning to Europe in 1787. Back in England, he continued writing pamphlets in support of revolution. He published The Rights of Man, supporting the French revolution in 1791-2, in answer to Edmund Burke's famous Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790). His sentiments were highly unpopular with the British government, so he fled to France.
When he first arrived in Paris, Paine was heartily welcomed and granted honorary citizenship by leaders of the revolution. However, before long, he ran afoul of his new hosts. Paine was strictly opposed to the death penalty under all circumstances and he vocally opposed the French revolutionaries who were sending hundreds to the guillotine. He also began writing a provocative new book, The Age of Reason, which promoted the controversial notion that God did not influence the actions of people and that science and rationality would prevail over religion and superstition. Although Paine realized that sentiment was turning against him in the autumn of 1793, he remained in France because he believed he was helping the people.
Though the charges against Paine were never detailed, the French revolutionaries tried him in absentia on 26 December 1793 and convicted him. He was arrested on 28 December 1793 and taken to Luxembourg Prison. The jail was formerly a palace and was unlike any other detainment center in the world. He was treated to a large room with two windows and was locked inside only at night. His meals were catered from outside, and servants were permitted, though Paine did not take advantage of that particular luxury. However, he did carry a small sword that was permitted by jail authorities. While in prison, he continued to work on The Age of Reason and began an affair with actress Muriel Alette, who had been sentenced to death for being the mistress of a nobleman.
Paine's imprisonment in France caused a general uproar in the US and future President James Monroe used all of his diplomatic connections to get Paine released on 04 November 1794 after the fall of Robespierre and the end of the Terror.
Paine remained in France until 01 September 1802, when he sailed for the United States, where he had come to be despised too. After The Age of Reason was published, he was called an anti-Christ, and his reputation was ruined.
1796 Franz Anton Maubertsch, Austrian painter
who dies on his 72nd birthday. MORE
ON MAUBERTSCH AT ART 4 JUNE
and Eliezer Joseph
and his Brothers Annunciation
by the Shepherds _ detail
_ The detail is a self-portrait. Mary
of the Alba The
Death of Saint Joseph Apotheosis
of a Hungarian Saint
1747 Anton Kern (or Korne), German artist born in 1710.
1674 Jan Lievens van Oude, Dutch painter born on 24 October 1607. MORE ON LIEVENS AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS Constantijn Huygens Rembrandt van Rijn Samson and Delilah Vanitas Still Life Poet Jan Vos A Girl Petrus Egidius de Morrion Raising of Lazarus
0885 Papa Adriano III, santo.
Muhammad, The Prophet, founder of Islam,
In Medina, located in present-day Saudi Arabia, Muhammad, one of the most influential religious and political leaders in history, dies in the arms of Aishah, his third and favorite wife. Born in Mecca of humble origins, Muhammad married a wealthy widow at twenty-five, and lived the next fifteen years as an unremarkable merchant.
In 610, in a cave in Mount Hira north of Mecca, he had a vision in which he heard God, speaking through the angel Gabriel, command him to become the Arab prophet of the "true religion." Thus began a lifetime of religious revelations, which he collected in the Koran. These revelations provided the foundation of the Islamic religion. Muhammad regarded himself as the last prophet of the Judaic-Christian tradition, and he adopted the theology of these older religions while introducing new doctrines. His inspired teachings also brought unity to the Bedouin tribesmen of Arabia, an event that later had sweeping consequences for the rest of the world.
By the summer of 622, Muhammad had gained a substantial number of converts in Mecca, leading the city’s authorities, who had a vested interest in preserving the city’s pagan religion, to plan his assassination. Muhammad fled to Median, a city some three hundred kilometers north of Mecca, where he was given a position of considerable political power. At Medina, he built a model theocratic state and administered a rapidly growing empire.
In 629, Muhammad overcame Meccan resistance to his rule and returned to the holy city as a conqueror. Over the next two-and-a-half years, dozens of disparate Arab tribes converted to his religion, and by his death on June 8, 632, he was the effective ruler of all southern Arabia. In addition, his missionaries, or legates, were active in the Eastern Empire, in Persia, and in Ethiopia.
Over the next century, vast conquest continued under Muhammad’s successors and allies, and the Muslim advance was not halted until the Battle of Tours in France in 732. By this time, the Muslim empire, the largest the world had ever seen, stretched from India across the Middle East and North Africa, and through Western Europe’s Iberian Peninsula. However, the spread of Islam and Muhammad’s teachings continued after the end of Arab conquest, and dozens of cultures throughout Africa and Central Asia voluntarily adopted the religion. Today, Islam is the world’s second largest religion.
In Medina, located in present-day Saudi Arabia, Muhammad, one of the most influential religious and political leaders in history, dies in the arms of Aishah, his third and favorite wife. Born in Mecca of humble origins, Muhammad married a wealthy widow at 25 years old and lived the next 15 years as an unremarkable merchant. In 610, in a cave in Mount Hira north of Mecca, he had a vision in which he heard God, speaking through the angel Gabriel, command him to become the Arab prophet of the "true religion." Thus began a lifetime of religious revelations, which he and others collected as the Qur'an. These revelations provided the foundation for the Islamic religion. Muhammad regarded himself as the last prophet of the Judaic-Christian tradition, and he adopted the theology of these older religions while introducing new doctrines. His inspired teachings also brought unity to the Bedouin tribesmen of Arabia, an event that had sweeping consequences for the rest of the world. By the summer of 622, Muhammad had gained a substantial number of converts in Mecca, leading the city's authorities, who had a vested interest in preserving the city's pagan religion, to plan his assassination. Muhammad fled to Medina, a city some 200 miles north of Mecca, where he was given a position of considerable political power. At Medina, he built a model theocratic state and administered a rapidly growing empire. In 629, Muhammad returned to Mecca as a conqueror. During the next two and a half years, numerous disparate Arab tribes converted to his religion. By his death on 08 June 632, he was the effective ruler of all southern Arabia, and his missionaries, or legates, were active in the Eastern Empire, Persia, and Ethiopia. During the next century, vast conquests continued under Muhammad's successors and allies, and the Muslim advance was not halted until the Battle of Tours in France in 732. By this time, the Muslim empire, among the largest the world had ever seen, stretched from India across the Middle East and North Africa, and up through Western Europe's Iberian peninsula. The spread of Islam continued after the end of the Arab conquest, and many cultures in Africa and Asia voluntarily adopted the religion. Today, Islam is the world's second-largest religion.
Muhammad (Mahomet en français) meurt à Médine le 8 juin 632. Il a 62 ans. Le Prophète de l'Islam vient d'achever par les armes l'unification de la péninsule arabe. Mais bien qu'il ait eu une quinzaine de femmes légitimes, il ne laisse aucun fils survivant, susceptible de lui succéder à la tête des croyants. C'est Abou Bekr qui remplace le messager d'Allah. Il prend le nom de khalîfa (ou calife), d'un mot arabe qui veut dire remplaçant. Le premier calife figure parmi les plus anciens compagnons de Mahomet. Il est aussi le père de Aïsha, la femme de Mahomet, que le prophète épousa alors qu'elle avait 9 ans. Seul Ali, le gendre du prophète, déplore l'élection d'Abou Bekr. Il s'est fait par ailleurs une ennemie de Aïsha en ne la défendant pas quand elle était soupçonnée d'adultère. Ces ressentiments causeront plus tard la scission entre les musulmans orthodoxes de confession sunnite et ceux de confession shi'ite. En attendant, les cavaliers d'Abou Bekr propagent la nouvelle religion. Dix ans après la mort de Mahomet, les provinces byzantines d'Egypte et de Syrie et l'empire perse tombent sous leur domination. Un siècle à peine s'écoule quand les avant-garde musulmanes atteignent Poitiers... Pendant que les musulmans liquident l'héritage antique de l'Orient, en Occident, les Barbares achèvent de ruiner ce qui reste de l'ordre romain.
Mahoma, fundador y profeta del Islam.
| Births which occurred on
a June 08:
1936 Kenneth Wilson, investigador estadounidense, Premio Nobel de Física en 1982.
1928 Gustavo Gutiérrez Merino-Díaz, sacerdote peruano, fundador de la denominada teología de la liberación.
1921 Suharto, former President of Indonesia Suharto, militar y político indonesio.
1917 Byron White, retired US Supreme Court Justice.
1916 Francis Crick, bioquímico británico, Premio Nobel 1962.
1910 John Campbell, US science-fiction writer who died on 11 July 1971.
1903 Marguerite de Crayencour, écrivain plus connue sous le nom de Marguerite Yourcenar, à Bruxelles [pourquoi pas Yourcenarc?] [Elle écrivait avec un crayon court?]. Marguerite Yourcenar, Belgian-born US poet, novelist, dramatist, and translator, who wrote only in French. Her books include poems: Le Jardin des chimères (1921), Les Dieux ne sont pas morts. (1922); novels: Alexis, ou le traité du vain combat (1929), Denier du rêve (1934), Mémoires d'Hadrien (1951), L'Oeuvre au noir (1968); two volumes of plays: Théâtre (1971); autobiographical books: Mishima: ou la vision du vide (1981), Les Yeux ouverts: entretiens avec Matthieu Galey (1980).
Yourcenar died on 17 December 1987. Marguerite Yourcenar, escritora.
1871 Carl August Liner, Swiss artist who died in 1946.
1869 First vacuum cleaner (it sucks) is patented by Ives W McGaffey of Chicago patents first vacuum cleaner (it sucks)
1867 Frank Lloyd Wright, architect: Pennsylvania's Falling Water, NYC's Guggenheim Museum; leaky roofs; "No house should be on any hill or on anything, it should be of the hill, belonging to it ...". He died on 09 April 1959. Frank Lloyd Wright, arquitecto estadounidense.
1860 Stott, mathematician
1858 Scott, mathematician
1839 John Davison Rockefeller, industrial y magnate del petróleo estadounidense.
1829 John Everett Millais, British painter who died on 13 August 1896. MORE ON MILLAIS AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS
1825 Charles Chaplin, British academic painter based in Paris, famed for his portraits of beautiful women. Chaplin died on 20 January 1891. [Not to be confused withbut who would?]
1813 David Dixon Porter, US naval officer who held important Union commands in the American Civil War
1810 Robert Schumann Zwickau Saxony Germany, composer (Fantasiestücke, Symphonic Etudes, Fantasia in C Major, Concerto in A Minor) Robert Schumann, compositor alemán.
1805 Salustiano Olózaga, político español.
1785 Patricio Domínguez y Bueno, militar español.
1757 Johannes Huibert Prins, Dutch artist who died in 1906.
1745 Wessel, mathematician.
1724 Franz Anton Maubertsch, Austrian painter who would die on his 72nd birthday. [see above]
1659 Justus van Huysum Sr., Dutch flower and landscape painter, who died in April 1716.
1625 Giovanni Domenico Cassini discovered 4 satellites of Saturn.
1566 Gerolamo de Ponte Bassano, Italian artist who died on 08 November 1621