a June 13:
2002 The Afghan grand council (loya jirga), by 1295 out 1575 votes,
elects Karzai [14 Jun 2002 photo >] as interim president
for the next two years. The council goes on to discuss the structure
of the interim government. Hamid
ebn Abdul Ahad Karzai, born on 24 December 1957, has since 22 December
2001 headed the first transitional government after being chosen (05
December 2001) by Afghan leaders meeting in Bonn, Germany, under the
auspices of the United Nations.
2002 The stock of communications services company Alamosa Holdings
(APS), which on 12 June had fallen from its 11 June close of $1.92 to
an intraday low of $1.05 and closed at $1.10, makes a new intraday low
of $1.03 at 09:48 and then recovers steadily to make an intraday high
of $1.55 several times (14:20, 14:59, 15:26) and closes at $1.47.
2002 The stock of Tyco International (TYC) confirms its 12 June
recovery in after-hours trading (from its $10.15 close) by opening at
$13.00, making an intraday high of $13.95 (at 15:45) and closing at $13.80.
Tyco had announced the authorization of its sale of a subsidiary.
2002 Supreme Court Justice Steven Fisher vacates the conviction
and dismisses the indictment of Angelo Martinez, 36, for the 10 April
1985 bingo hall murder of Rudolph Marasco, 70, for which on 24 October
1986 Martinez was sentenced him to 26 1/2-years-to-life in prison. In
1989, Charles Rivera, a federal prisoner in the witness protection program,
confessed to the killing. Authorities didn't believe Rivera because he
failed a lie detector test. But now investigators were able to confirm
Rivera's account through new evidence (a witness who confirmed Rivera's
guilt). Martinez will remain in prison until he can convince a federal
judge that his 1993 24-year sentence for peddling cocaine while in prison
should be reduced.
2000 The presidents of South Korea and North Korea opened a summit
in the northern capital of Pyongyang with pledges to seek reunification
of the divided peninsula.
2000 Italy pardoned Mehmet Ali Agca, the Turkish gunman who'd
tried to kill Pope John Paul II in 1981.
1996 The US Supreme Court placed greater limits on congressional
districts intentionally drawn to get more minorities elected to Congress.
1996 The 81-day-old Freemen standoff ended as 16 remaining members
of the anti-government group surrendered to the FBI and left their Montana
1991 The US Supreme Court ruled a jailed suspect represented
by a lawyer in one criminal case sometimes may be questioned by police
about another crime without the lawyer present.
1990 Wash DC mayor Marion Barry announces he will not seek a
1986 President Reagan criticizes South African state of emergency
Bishop Tutu meets President Botha
Bishop Desmond Tutu, winner of
the 1984 Nobel Prize for Peace, meets with South African President
P.W. Botha to discuss the nationwide state of emergency declared
by Botha in response to the anti-apartheid protests. "This is
not likely to help restore law and order and peace and calm,"
Tutu said of the government crackdown after the meeting. "If
we do have any calm, it will be very brittle, it will be superficial,
it will be sullen, and at the slightest chance, it will be broken
again." In 1948, South Africa's white minority government institutionalized
its policy of racial segregation and white supremacy known as
apartheid--Afrikaans for "apartness." Eighty percent of the
country's land was set aside for white use, and black Africans
entering this territory required special passes. Blacks, who
had no representation in the government, were subjected to different
labor laws and educational standards than whites and lived in
extreme poverty while white South Africans prospered.
Organized anti-apartheid protests
began in the 1950s, and in the 1960s Nelson Mandela and other
anti-apartheid leaders were imprisoned. In the 1970s, a new
phase of protest began, with black trade unions organizing strikes
and Steve Biko, leader of the Black Consciousness movement,
calling on blacks to defend their African culture.
After the Soweto uprising of
June 1976, more than 500 black activists, including Biko, were
killed by police. By the time Pieter W. Botha took power as
South African prime minister in 1978, ongoing domestic turmoil
and increasing international condemnation made it clear that
the South African government could not long sustain the apartheid
Botha's administration undertook
many reforms, including an end to some racial segregation, a
repeal of the "pass laws," and an end to the ban on black trade
unions, but made no fundamental change to South Africa's power
structure. Protests continued, and Botha resorted to violent
tactics, using the military and police to suppress opposition
to his minority government. Thousands of blacks were killed.
Meanwhile, a black Anglican minister
named Desmond Tutu, who in 1975 became the first black dean
of St. Mary's Cathedral in Johannesburg, was emerging as an
important leader of the anti-apartheid movement. He advocated
nonviolence and pushed for international sanctions against South
Africa. In 1984, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace. The
next year, he was installed as Johannesburg's first black Anglican
bishop. In 1984, a new constitution took effect that made Botha
president of South Africa but failed to grant blacks representation
in his government.
Demonstrations escalated, and
on June 12, 1986, Botha declared martial law as a means of preventing
demonstrations planned to commemorate the 10th anniversary of
the 1976 Soweto uprising. Thousands of black community leaders,
clergymen, union organizers, and anti-apartheid activists were
arrested, and heavily armed policemen and troops patrolled the
On June 13, as a conciliatory
gesture, Botha meets with Desmond Tutu in Cape Town, but the
meeting failed to temper Tutu's public criticism of Botha's
In the fall of 1986, the US
government and the European Community authorized economic sanctions
against South Africa in an effort to end apartheid. In September,
Desmond Tutu was elected the first black archbishop of Cape
Town, thus becoming the spiritual leader of three million Anglicans
in southern Africa. In his new position, he continued his outspoken
criticism of apartheid and the oppressive South African government.
With the South African economy
in decline, P.W. Botha stepped down as president in 1989 and
was succeeded by F.W. de Klerk, who set about dismantling apartheid.
Nelson Mandela was freed, a new constitution enfranchised blacks,
and in 1994 Mandela and the African National Congress were elected
to power in South Africa's first free elections. Desmond Tutu
retired as Anglican archbishop in 1996.
1982 Fahd becomes king of Saudi Arabia when King Khalid dies
man-made object to leave Solar System
After over a decade in space,
Pioneer 10, the world's first outer-planetary probe, leaves
the solar system. The next day, it radioes back its first scientific
data on interstellar space.
On March 2, 1972, the NASA spacecraft
was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a mission to Jupiter,
the solar system's largest planet. On December 3, 1973, after
successfully negotiating the asteroid belt and a distance of
620 million miles, Pioneer 10 reached Jupiter, and sent back
to earth the first close-up images of the spectacular gas giant.
NASA officially ended the project
on March 31, 1997, with the spacecraft having traveled a distance
of some ten billion km. Headed in the direction of the Taurus
constellation, Pioneer 10 will pass within three light years
of another star--Ross 246--in the year 34'600 A.D. Bolted to
the probe's exterior wall is a gold-anodized plaque, 15 by 23
cm, that displays a drawing of a human man and woman, a star
map marked with the location of the sun, and another map showing
the flight path of Pioneer 10. The plaque, intended to seen
by intelligent life forms elsewhere in the galaxy, was designed
by astronomer Carl Sagan.
1979 Sioux Indians are awarded $105 million in compensation for
the US seizure in 1877 of their Black Hills in South Dakota.
1978 Israelis withdraw the last of their invading forces from
Lebanon. (They went back in some years later)
1977 James Earl Ray, the convicted assassin of civil rights leader
Martin Luther King Jr., was recaptured following his escape three days
earlier from a Tennessee prison.
peace agreement ^top^
Representatives of the original
signers of the January 27 cease-fire sign a new 14-point agreement
calling for an end to all cease-fire violations in South Vietnam.
Coming at the end of month-long negotiations between Henry Kissinger
and Le Duc Tho, the settlement included an end to all military
activities at noon on June 15; an end to US reconnaissance
flights over North Vietnam and the resumption of US minesweeping
operations in North Vietnamese waters; the resumption of US
talks on aid to North Vietnam; and the meeting of commanders
of opposing forces in South Vietnam to prevent outbreaks of
hostilities. Fighting had erupted almost immediately after the
original cease-fire that had been initiated as part of the Paris
Peace Accords. Both sides repeatedly violated the terms of the
cease-fire as they jockeyed for position and control of the
countryside. This new agreement proved no more effective than
the original peace agreement in stopping the fighting, which
continued into early 1975 when the North Vietnamese launched
a massive offensive that overran South Vietnam in less than
55 days. The war was finally over on April 30, 1975, when North
Vietnamese tanks rolled into Saigon.
New York Times begins publishing the Pentagon Papers,
a secret study of America's involvement in Vietnam.
The New York Times begins publishing
portions of the 47-volume Pentagon analysis of how the US
commitment in Southeast Asia grew over a period of three decades.
Daniel Ellsberg, a former Defense Department analyst who had
become an antiwar activist, had stolen the documents. After
unsuccessfully offering the documents to prominent opponents
of the war in the US Senate, Ellsberg gave them to the Times.
Officially called The History of the US Decision Making Process
on Vietnam, the "Pentagon Papers" disclosed closely guarded
communiques, recommendations, and decisions concerning the US
military role in Vietnam during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations,
along with the diplomatic phase in the Eisenhower years. The
publication of the papers created a nationwide furor, with congressional
and diplomatic reverberations as all branches of the government
debated over what constituted "classified" material and how
much should be made public. The publication of the documents
precipitated a crucial legal battle over "the people's right
to know," and led to an extraordinary session of the US Supreme
Court to settle the issue. Although the documents were from
the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, President Richard Nixon
opposed their publication, both to protect the sources in highly
classified appendices, and to prevent further erosion of public
support for the war. On June 30, the Supreme Court ruled that
the Times had the right to publish the material. The publication
of the "Pentagon Papers," along with previous suspected disclosures
of classified information to the press, led to the creation
of a White House unit to plug information leaks to journalists.
The illegal activities of the unit, known as the "Plumbers,"
and their subsequent cover-up, became known collectively as
the "Watergate scandal," which resulted in President Nixon's
resignation in August 1974
The New York Times begins to
publish sections of the so-called "Pentagon Papers," a top-secret
Department of Defense study of America's involvement in the
Vietnam War. The papers indicated that the American government
had been lying to the people for years about the Vietnam War
and the papers seriously damaged the credibility of America's
Cold War foreign policy. In 1967, Secretary of Defense Robert
McNamara ordered his department to prepare an in-depth history
of American involvement in the Vietnam War. McNamara had already
begun to harbor serious doubts about US policy in Vietnam,
and the study--which came to be known as the "Pentagon Papers"--substantiated
his misgivings. Top-secret memorandums, reports, and papers
indicated that the US government had systematically lied to
the American people, deceiving them about American goals and
progress in the war in Vietnam. The devastating multi-volume
study remained locked away in a Pentagon safe for years. In
1971, Daniel Ellsberg, a Vietnam veteran and Defense Department
employee who had turned completely against the war, began to
smuggle portions of the papers out of the Pentagon. These papers
made their way to the New York Times, and on June 13, 1971,
the American public read them in stunned amazement. The publication
of the papers added further fuel to the already powerful antiwar
movement and drove the administration of President Richard Nixon
into a frenzy of paranoia about information "leaks." Nixon attempted
to stop further publication of the papers, but the Supreme Court
refused to issue an injunction. The "Pentagon Papers" further
eroded the American public's confidence in their nation's Cold
War foreign policy. The brutal, costly, and seemingly endless
Vietnam War had already damaged the government's credibility,
and the publication of the "Pentagon Papers" showed people the
true extent to which the government had manipulated and lied
to them. Some of the most dramatic examples were documents indicating
that the Kennedy administration had openly encouraged and participated
in the overthrow of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem
in 1963; that the CIA believed that the "domino theory" did
not actually apply to Asia; and that the heavy American bombing
of North Vietnam, contrary to US government pronouncements
about its success, was having absolutely no impact on the communists'
will to continue the fight.
1966 The US Supreme Court issued its landmark Miranda decision,
ruling that criminal suspects had to be informed of their constitutional
rights prior to questioning by police.
Thurgood Marshall appointed to Supreme Court
President Lyndon Johnson nominated
Solicitor-General Thurgood Marshall to become the first black
justice on the US Supreme Court.
President Lyndon B. Johnson appoints
US court of appeals judge Thurgood Marshall to the US Supreme
Court to fill the seat of retiring associate justice Tom C.
Clark. On August 30, after a heated debate, the Senate confirmed
Marshall's nomination by a vote of sixty-nine to eleven. Two
days later, he was sworn in by Chief Justice Earl Warren, making
him the first African-American in history to sit on America's
The great-grandson of slaves,
Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1908. In 1933,
after studying under the tutelage of civil liberties lawyer
Charles H. Houston, he received his law degree from Howard University
in Washington, D.C. In 1936, he joined the legal division of
the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP), of which Houston was director, and two years later
succeeded his mentor in the organization's top legal post.
As the NAACP's chief counsel
from 1938 to 1961, he argued thirty-two cases before the US
Supreme Court, successfully challenging racial segregation,
most notably in public education. He won twenty-nine of these
cases, including a groundbreaking victory in 1954's Brown
v. Board of Education, in which the Supreme Court ruled
that ruled that segregation violated the Fourteenth Amendment
to the Constitution and was thus illegal. The decision served
as a great impetus for the African-American civil rights movement
of the 1950s and 1960s, and ultimately led to the abolishment
of segregation in all public facilities and accommodations.
In 1961, President John F. Kennedy
appointed Marshall to the US Court of Appeals, but his nomination
was opposed by many Southern senators, and he was not confirmed
until the next year. In June of 1967, President Johnson nominated
him to the Supreme Court, and in late August he was confirmed.
During his twenty-four years on the high court, Associate Justice
Marshall consistently challenged discrimination based on race
or sex, opposed the death penalty, and supported the rights
of criminal defendants. He also defended affirmative action
and women's right to abortion. As appointments by a largely
Republican White House changed the politics of the Court, Marshall
found his liberal opinions increasingly in the minority. He
retired in 1991, and two years later, died.
1951 U.N. troops seize Pyongyang, North Korea. Lt.
Joe Kingston finds himself retreating and advancing in a single day.
1949 Installed by the French, Bao Dai enters Saigon to rule Vietnam.
1943 German spies land on Long Island, New York, and are soon
Pearl Harbor spy provided valuable intelligence to Japanese war planners.
|1944 Wire recorder for audio
The wire recorder for sound recording
was invented in the late 1930s by a student at the Armour Institute
of Technology in Chicago and is patented on June 13, 1944. The
US Navy used the device in 1941.
1940 Paris ville ouverte -- Paris is evacuated before the German
advance on the city. Four
years later, with the Allies marching on Paris, Adolf Hitler decreed
that the city should be left a smoking ruin.
1933 first sodium vapor lamps installed (Schenectady NY)
1927 Charles A. Lindbergh receives the Flying Cross and is treated
to a ticker tape parade in New York City to celebrate his successful
crossing of the Atlantic. B.F.
Mahoney was the 'mystery man' behind the Spirit of St. Louis.
Home Owners Refinancing Act ^top^
America's beleaguered homeowners
get a dose of relief on this day in 1933, as Congress votes
the Home Owners Refinancing Act. The legislation, passed during
the furious first 100 days of President Franklin Roosevelt's
New Dealing administration, is designed to help Depression-stricken
citizens refinance their homes. Towards that end, Act establishes
the HomeOwners Loan Corporation (HOLC), a typical Roosevelt-era
administration which uses federal funds to fight the Depression.
Chaired for a spell by New Deal stalwart Jesse Holman Jones,
HOLC helped finance mortgages and even helped pay for repairs
on some people's homes. Though HOLC lasted but three years,
it doled out loans for roughly one million mortgages.
1924 Doumergue président Après la victoire aux élections législatives
du Cartel des gauches, le président Millerand a démissionné. Gaston Doumergue,
président du Sénat qui jouit de la faveur de tous les partis de la Chambre,
est élu président de la République.
|1925 Telecast of a moving object
The first telecast of a moving
object shows a model windmill with rotating blades. A radio
station in Washington, D.C., transmitted the image to a laboratory
elsewhere in the city. Previous telecasts had only transmitted
still images. Within three years, the first regularly scheduled
television programs would be broadcast. However, the radio industry
would outstrip the fledgling television industry in profits
1923 The French set a trade barrier between the occupied Ruhr
and the rest of Germany.
1920 The US Post Office Department rules that children may not
be sent by parcel post.
1907 Lowest temp ever in 48 US states for June, 2ºF in Tamarack
Pershing arrive. ^top^
Le Général Américain Pershing,
le plus jeune des " hauts-gradés " américains, prend en main
l’organisation d’une structure d’accueil pour les Américains
en France. Quelques mois plus tôt, le Congrès Américain a donné
son accord pour l’entrée en guerre des E.U. C’est quelque chose
de phénoménal pour l’époque. 2 millions de soldats vont ainsi
entrer en France avant d’être redistribués sur différents fronts.
Avec obstination, il lutte pied à pied contre Français et Anglais,
pour que les Américains gardent leur autonomie de commandement.
En quelques mois, il crée ainsi un instrument que ne possédaient
pas encore les E.U. d’Amérique, un corps expéditionnaire opérationnel
et une armée de métier.
1900 China's Boxer Rebellion against foreigners and Christians
erupts into full-scale violence.
1898 Yukon Territory of Canada organized, Dawson chosen as capital
|1900 Soulèvement des Boxers
Les adeptes de cette société
secrète avaient juré de se débarrasser des Occidentaux. Ils
envahissent toutes les ambassades de Pékin (Chine). Les autorités
chinoises n'interviennent pas. De durs combats se déroulèrent.
Les pays européens concernés devront envoyer leurs propres troupes
pour écraser la rebellion et dissoudre la société.
1895 Emile Levassor wins first Paris-Bordeaux-Paris auto race
1888 US Congress creates the Department of Labor
1876 The Presbyterian Church in England merges with the United
Presbyterian Church of Scotland, in creating a more uniform representation
of the Reformed faith in the British Isles.
1866 US House of Representatives passes 14th Amendment to the
1863 Confederate forces on their way to Gettysburg clash with
Union troops at the Second
Battle of Winchester, Virginia
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1863 Samuel Butler publishes first part of Erewhon, Christchurch,
1862 Federals, after a brief skirmish, occupy Romney, Virginia
(now West Virginia)
1862 Skirmish at New Market, Virginia
|1848 Validation de l'élection
de Louis-Napoléon ^top^
Le 4 juin, Louis Napoléon Bonaparte
a été triomphalement élu dans quatre départements. A Paris,
sur les boulevards, on réclame "Poléon" sur l'air des lampions.
Ce jour, l'Assemblée valide l'élection de Louis Napoléon qu'une
commission exécutive a refusée. Malgré la décision prise, trois
jours plus tard, invoquant les soupçons injurieux dont il a
été l'objet, il démissionne. Commentaire de Napoléon III quelques
années plus tard: " Mieux valait laisser aux utopies et aux
passions le temps de s'user. "
1792 Le roi riposte. L'Assemblée vient de voter deux décrets,
l'un pour le bannissement des prêtres réfractaires, l'autre pour la dissolution
de la garde royale. Louis XVI réplique en convoquant Roland, Servan et
Clavière, ministres girondins, et en les sommant de démissionner
Meriwether Lewis reaches the Great Falls
Having hurried ahead of the main
body of the expedition, Meriwether Lewis and four men arrive
at the Great Falls of the Missouri River, confirming that the
explorers are headed in the right direction. Meriwether Lewis
and William Clark had set out on their expedition to the Pacific
the previous year. They spent the winter of 1804 with the Mandan
Indians in present-day North Dakota. The Hidatsa Indians, who
lived nearby, had traveled far to the West, and they proved
an important source of information for Lewis and Clark. The
Hidatsa told Lewis and Clark they would come to a large impassable
waterfall in the Missouri when they neared the Rocky Mountains,
but they assured the captains that portage around the falls
was less than half a mile. Armed with this valuable information,
Lewis and Clark resumed their journey up the Missouri accompanied
by a party of 33 in April. The expedition made good time, and
by early June, the explorers were nearing the Rocky Mountains.
On June 3, however, they came to a fork at which two equally
large rivers converged. "Which of these rivers was the Missouri?"
Lewis asked in his journal. Since the river coming in from the
north most resembled the Missouri in its muddy turbulence, most
of the men believed it must be the Missouri. Lewis, however,
reasoned that the water from the Missouri would have traveled
only a short distance from the mountains and, therefore, would
be clear and fast-running like the south fork. The decision
was critical. If the explorers chose the wrong river, they would
not be able to find the Shoshone Indians from whom they planned
to obtain horses for the portage over the Rockies. Although
all of their men disagreed, Lewis and Clark concluded they should
proceed up the south fork. To err on the side of caution, however,
the captains decided that Lewis and a party of four would speed
ahead on foot. If Lewis did not soon encounter the big waterfall
the Hidatsa had told them of, the party would return and the
expedition would backtrack to the other river. On this day in
1805, four days after forging ahead of the main body of the
expedition, Lewis was overjoyed to hear "the agreeable sound
of a fall of water." Soon after he "saw the spray arise above
the plain like a column of smoke.... [It] began to make a roaring
too tremendous to be mistaken for any cause short of the great
falls of the Missouri." By noon, Lewis had reached the falls,
where he stared in awe at "a sublimely grand specticle [sic]....
the grandest sight I had ever held." Lewis and Clark had been
correct--the south fork was the Missouri River. The mysterious
northern fork was actually the Marias River. Had the explorers
followed the Marias, they would have traveled up into the northern
Rockies where a convenient pass led across the mountains into
the Columbia River drainage. However, Lewis and Clark would
not have found the Shoshone Indians nor obtained the horses.
Without horses, the crossing might well have failed. Three days
after finding the falls, Lewis rejoined Clark and told him the
good news. However, the captains' elation did not last long.
They soon discovered that the portage around the Great Falls
was not the easy half-mile jaunt reported by the Hidatsa, but
rather a punishing 18-mile trek over rough terrain covered with
spiky cactus. The Great Portage, as it was later called, would
take the men nearly a month to complete. By mid-July, however,
the expedition was again moving ahead. A month later, Lewis
and Clark found the Shoshone Indians, who handed over the horses
that were so critical to the subsequent success of their mission.
1789 Mrs Alexander Hamilton serves ice cream for dessert to
1777 Marquis de Lafayette lands in the United States to assist
the colonies in their war against England.
1774 Rhode Island becomes first colony to prohibit importation
1525 German Reformer Martin Luther, 42, marries former nun Katherine
von Bora, 26. Their 21-year marriage would bear six children. Kate would
outlive her husband (who died in 1546) by six years.
1642 Arrestation de Cinq-Mars qui est incarcéré dans la citadelle
1415 Henry the Navigator, the prince of Portugal, embarks on an
expedition to Africa. This marks the beginning of Portuguese dominance
of West Africa.
des Serbes par les Ottomans, au Kossovo.
Les Turcs Ottomans organisent
l’administration des Balkans comme en Turquie. Les Balkans adoptent
ainsi progressivement la religion musulmane. Les guerres des
Balkans au XXème siècle, ne peuvent se comprendre sans cette
notion d’opposition multi-séculaire entre Chrétiens Serbes (et
Orthodoxes, aidés par la Russie) et Musulmans Turcs (aidés par
L’armée Turque se compose de
soldats, les Janissaires, étrangers, encadrés par des Turcs.
Ces soldats étrangers sont des jeunes chrétiens arrachés à leur
famille dès 12 ans et élevés dans des établissements de formation
militaire. La discipline et l’obéissance à la loi musulmane
sont leurs seules règles; ils ne craignent plus la mort et leur
efficacité est légendaire.
Peasant army marches into London
During the Peasant's Revolt,
a large mob of English peasants led by Wat Tyler marches into
London and begins burning and looting the city. Several government
buildings are destroyed, prisoners are released, and a judge
is beheaded along with several dozen other leading citizens.
The Peasant's Revolt had its
origins in a severe manifestation of bubonic plague in the late
1340s, which killed nearly a third of the population of England.
The scarcity of labor brought on by the Black Death led to higher
wages and a more mobile peasantry. However, Parliament resisted
these changes to its traditional feudal system, and passed laws
to hold down wages while encouraging landlords to reassert their
ancient manorial rights.
In 1380, peasant discontent reached
a breaking point when Parliament restricted voting rights through
an increase of the poll tax, and the Peasant's Revolt began.
In Kent, a county in southeast England, the rebels chose Wat
Tyler as their leader, and he led his growing "army" toward
London, capturing Maidstone, Rochester, and Canterbury along
the way. After he was denied a meeting with King Richard II,
he leads the rebels into London on June 13, 1381, burning and
plundering the city.
The next day, the fourteen-year-old
king meets with peasant leaders at Mile End, and agrees to their
demands to abolish serfdom and restrictions on the marketplace.
However, at the same time, fighting continues elsewhere, and
Tyler leads a peasant force against the Tower of London, capturing
the fortress and executing the archbishop of Canterbury.
The next day, the king meets
Tyler at Smithfield, and Tyler presents new demands, including
one that calls for the abolishment of church property. During
the meeting, the mayor of London, angered at Tyler's arrogance
in the presence of the king, lunges at the rebel leader with
a sword, fatally wounding him. As Tyler lies dying on the ground,
Richard manages to keep the peasant mob calm until the mayor
returns with armed troops. Hundreds of rebels are executed and
the rest dispersed. Over the next few days, the Peasant Revolt
is put down with severity all across England, and Richard revokes
all the concessions he had made to the peasants at Mile End.
For several weeks, Wat Tyler's head is displayed on a pole in
a London field.
1373 Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of Alliance (world's oldest) signed.
du Doge de Gênes, la grande rivale de Venise.
Né d’une famille de marchands
génois, au début du XIVe siècle, un certain Rolando Fregoso
est châtelain de Voltaggio, de Gavi et de Portovenere. En 1370,
son fils Domenico (1325-1390) fait déposer le doge Gabriel Adorno
et se fait proclamer à sa place, au terme d’un coup d’État.
Pendant un siècle et demi, d’inexplicables luttes familiales
entre les Fregoso et les Adorno vont désoler Gênes, allant jusqu’à
provoquer des interventions étrangères. La famille fournit treize
doges à la république génoise. Domenico est doge pendant huit
ans; les aléas de la guerre dite de Chioggia contre Venise sont
à l’origine de sa déposition, le 13 juin 1378.
Violents, factieux et volontiers
prêts aux coups de main, les Fregoso sont souvent de remarquables
hommes de guerre : Piero, frère de Domenico, conquiert Chypre
(1373) ; Abramo, fils de Piero, gouverneur de Corse en 1416,
empêche les Aragonais de s’emparer de l’île.
Quant à Paolo Fregoso (1430-1498),
Cardinal, il mène une vie d’aventurier ambitieux. Doge à Gênes,
il se montre si rapace et si brutal que les Génois font appel
au Prince Sforza pour le chasser en 1464. De même, en 1488,
une insurrection met fin à sa seconde expérience de pouvoir
seigneurial à Gênes. Comme chez la plupart des membres de sa
famille, la culture et le raffinement intellectuel se mêlent
chez lui à l’ambition, à la cruauté et à la perfidie. La famille
se divise aux XVe et XVIe siècles en de nombreuses branches.
Son importance politique décroît et s’éteint à la fin du XVIe