CURRENT UPDATES: TODAY2 TO TODAY+2
• La France n'a pas perdu la guerre... • Their finest hour... • Strategic Arms Limitation... • War of 1812... • Netanyahu Prime Minister of Israel... • British leave Philadelphia... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • US general killed on Okinawa... • Sally Ride's ride in space... • Peppermint Patty takes charge...
| On a June 18:
1989 Derrota de los socialistas de Papandreu en las elecciones legislativas griegas y triunfo de la derecha de Konstantinos Mitsotakis, que consigue el 45,2 porciento de los votos.
1989 Alta abstención y giro a la izquierda, notas destacadas de las elecciones al Parlamento Europeo, tras los comicios celebrados hoy en Alemania Occidental, Bélgica, Francia, Grecia, Italia, Luxemburgo y Portugal.
1984 El presidente de la Generalidad de Cataluña, Jordi Pujol,
comienza un nuevo mandato de cuatro años.
1983 Li Xiannián es elegido Presidente de la República de China.
1982 Voting Rights Act of 1965 extended by Senate by 85-8 vote
1981 Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart retires (replaced by Sandra Day O'Connor, first woman on high court) 1980 Mrs Shakuntala Devi mentally multiplies two 13-digit numbers in 28 seconds.
1968 US Supreme Court bans racial discrimination in sale and rental of housing.
Patty takes charge at camp ^top^
1957 John Diefenbacker (C) takes office as PM of Canada
1956 Los ingleses abandonan definitivamente Egipto, después de un período de dominio de 74 años. Last of foreign troops leaves Egypt
1955 Los ingleses evacuan el Canal de Suez.
1953 Proclamación de la República de Egipto por un grupo de oficiales del Ejército, tras la abdicación del rey Faruk. Egypt proclaimed a republic, General Neguib becomes president
1948 UN Commission on Human Rights adopts International Declaration of Human Rights
1948 US National Security Council authorizes covert operations for first time
1946 Proclamación de la República de Italia. El rey Humberto II se exilia en Portugal.
1945 William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw) British (Irish) radio traitor charged with treason
1942 Eric Nessler of France stays aloft in a glider for 38h21m
1940 De Londres, premier
du Général de Gaulle aux Français -- Héroïque résistance des 2000
cadets de Saumur commence et durera jusqu'au 21.
16 juin 1940 au soir, le gouvernement français de Paul Reynaud
démissionne. Le Maréchal Pétain est nommé chef du gouvernement
par le président de la République Albert Lebrun. Le Maréchal
Pétain demande l'armistice qui sera signé par lui le 22 juin
Le destin du monde est là.
and Mussolini meet in Munich
Benito Mussolini arrives in Munich with his foreign minister, Count Ciano, to discuss immediate plans with the Fuhrer, and doesn't like what he hears. Embarrassed over the late entry of Italy in the war against the Allies, and its rather tepid performance since, Mussolini wants to convince his Axis partner to exploit the advantage he has in France by demanding total surrender and occupying the southern portion still free. The Italian dictator clearly wants "in" on the spoils, and this is a way of reaping rewards with a minimum of risk.
But Hitler, too, is in no mood to risk, and is determined to put forward rather mild peace terms to France. He needs to ensure that the French fleet remain neutral and that a government-in-exile is not formed in North Africa or London to continue the war. He also denies Mussolini's request that Italian troops occupy the Rhone Valley, and that Corsica, Tunisia, and Djibouti (adjacent to Italian-occupied Ethiopia) be disarmed. Ciano records in his diary that Mussolini left the meeting frustrated and "very much embarrassed," feeling "that his role is secondary." Ciano also records his newfound respect for Hitler: "Today he speaks with a reserve and perspicacity which, after such a victory, are really astonishing."
1940 En Wallonie, récemment occupée par les Nazis,
création d’un mouvement clandestin : "Wallonie Libre". Il rassemble des
personnalités militantes libérales et socialistes. Leur but à long terme
: l’autonomie culturelle et politique de la Wallonie.
1928 Amelia Earhart is first woman (passenger) to cross Atlantic by air
1903 first US transcontinental auto trip begins in SF; arrives NY 3-mo later
1892 Macademia nuts first planted in Hawaii
1873 Susan B Anthony fined $100 for attempting to vote for US President
1870 Se aprueba la ley por la que se autoriza el Código Penal español.
1864 At Petersburg, Virginia, Grant ends 4 days of assaults
1863 After long neglect, Confederates hurriedly fortify Vicksburg. Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1837 La reina de España María Cristina proclama la Constitución de 1837.
1822 Part of US-Canadian boundary is determined.
Napoléon meets his Waterloo
(4th day: the end), ^top^
At Waterloo in Belgium, Napoleon Bonaparte suffers defeat at the hands of the Duke of Wellington, bringing an end to the Napoleonic era of European history. The Corsica-born Napoleon, one of the greatest military strategists in history, rapidly rose in the ranks of the French Revolutionary Army during the late 1790s. By 1799, France was at war with most of Europe, and Napoleon returned home from his Egyptian campaign to take over the reigns of the French government and save his nation from collapse. After becoming first consul in February 1800, he reorganized his armies and defeated Austria. In 1802, he established the Napoleonic Code, a new system of French law, and in 1804 was crowned emperor of France in Notre Dame Cathedral. By 1807, Napoleon controlled an empire that stretched from the River Elbe in the north, down through Italy in the south, and from the Pyrenees to the Dalmatian coast. Beginning in 1812, Napoleon began to encounter the first significant defeats of his military career, suffering through a disastrous invasion of Russia, losing Spain to the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsula War, and enduring total defeat against an allied force by 1814. Exiled to the island of Elba in the Mediterranean, he escaped to France in early 1815 and set up a new regime. As allied troops mustered on the French frontiers, he raised a new Grand Army and marched into Belgium. He intended to defeat the allied armies one by one before they could launch a united attack. On 16 June 1815, he defeated the Prussians under Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher at Ligny, and sent 33'000 men, or about one-third of his total force, in pursuit of the retreating Prussians.
On 18 June Napoleon led his remaining 72'000 soldiers against the Duke of Wellington's 68'000-man allied army, which had taken up a strong position 20 km south of Brussels near the village of Waterloo. In a fatal blunder, Napoleon waited until mid-day to give the command to attack in order to led the ground dry. The delay in fighting gave Blücher's troops, who had eluded their pursuers, time to march to Waterloo and join the battle by the late afternoon. In repeated attacks, Napoleon failed to break the center of the allied center. Meanwhile, the Prussians gradually arrived and put pressure on Napoleon's eastern flank. At 18:00, the French under Marshal Michel Ney managed to capture a farmhouse in the allied center and began decimating Wellington's troops with artillery. Napoleon, however, was preoccupied with the 30'000 Prussians attacking his flank and did not release troops to aid Ney's attack until after 19:00. By that time, Wellington had reorganized his defenses, and the French attack was repulsed. Fifteen minutes later, the allied army launched a general advance, and the Prussians attacked in the east, throwing the French troops into panic and then a disorganized retreat. The Prussians pursued the remnants of the French army, and Napoleon left the field. French casualties in the Battle of Waterloo were 25'000 men killed and wounded and 9000 captured, while the allies lost about 23'000.
Napoleon returned to Paris and on 22 June abdicated in favor of his son. He decided to leave France before counterrevolutionary forces could rally against him, and on 15 July he surrendered to British protection at the port of Rochefort. He hoped to travel to the United States, but the British instead sent him to Saint Helena, a remote island in the Atlantic off the coast of Africa. Napoleon protested but had no choice but to accept the exile. With a group of followers, he lived quietly on St. Helena for six years. In May 1821, he died, most likely of stomach cancer. He was only 51 years old. In 1840, his body was returned to Paris, and a magnificent funeral was held. Napoleon's body was conveyed through the Arc de Triomphe and entombed under the dome of the Invalides.
1793 LEMASSON Joseph Marie, 65 ans, né à Rennes (Ille-et-Vilaine) domicilié à St Servan, même département, chirurgien, est condamné à la déportation par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice de la conspiration, connue sous le nom de "Bretagne", dont le ci-devant marquis de la Rouerie était le chef ou l'un des principaux agents sous l'autorisation et l'appui des frères du ci-devant, roi; et, le 8 messidor an 2 (26 Jun 1794), is sera condamnné à mort par le même tribunal, comme complice d'un complot dans la maison d'arrêt de Bicêtre où il était détenu, en attendant l'exécution de son premier jugement, tendant à forcer les porte et égorger la garde de cette maison, se porter de là aux comités de salut public et de sûreté générale assassiner les membres les plus marquants, leur arracher le cœur, le faire griller, et le manger.
1464 Pius II leads a brief 'crusade' into Italy, against the Turks. However, he would soon become ill and die, before the rest of his allies arrive. Soon after, the three-centuries-old 'crusades mentality' among European Christians would come to an end.
1294 Un ghetto avant le mot: Un arrêt du Roi de France, Philippe le Bel, enjoint de "réunir" tous les Juifs de Paris dans un seul quartier bien séparé de la Ville et ceci "ad scandala evitanda". Et afin que les Chrétiens évitent les rapports avec les " infidèles ", l’on reprend un article du Concile de Latran (1215) : Sarrasins (Musulmans) et Juifs revêtiront un des habits particuliers qui les désignent clairement à leurs contemporains.
1178 Proposed time of origin of lunar crater Giordano Bruno: 5 Canterbury monks report explosion on the moon (only such observation known)
1155 En Roma el papa Adriano IV corona a Federico I como emperador de Alemania. Frédéric Ier Barberousse couronné Empereur Romain de la Germanie par le Pape Adrien IV. Frédéric périra noyé dans le Cydnos, petit cours d’eau de Cilicie (Province du Sud-est de l’Asie-Mineure, près des monts Taurus), lors de la 3ème Croisade, en 1190.
1991 Pres Zachary Taylor's body is exhumed to test how he died
which occurred on a June 18:
2002 Muhmad Basharat, of Islamic Jihad, shot during an identity check at an Israeli army roadblock in Halhoul, north of Hebron, West Bank. Israel says that Besharat was involved in a series of terror attacks, including the March 2002 murder of two members of the TIPH observer force who patrol Hebron.
2002 Rahamim Zidkiyahu, 51, Gila Nekev, 55, Shiri Negari, 22, Tatiana Braselevsky, 41, Helena Ivan*, 63, Mendel Bereson, 72, Baruch Gruani, 58, Galila Bugala, 11, Boaz Aluf*, 54, Liat Yagen, 24, Leah Baruch, 59, Baiman Aazi Kabhah, 23, Moshe Gottlieb, 70, Shani Avitzedek, 15, Orit Hayla, 21, Yelena Plagov, 42, Michal Biazi, 23, Raphael Berger, 28, Raisa Dikstein*, 69 , and suicide bomber Muhamed Haza al-Ral, 22, at 07:52 on an Egged bus of line 32A , driven by Zidkiyadu, just pulling out from the stop where the bomber boarded, near the Pat Junction in Beit Safafa, an Arab neighborhood opposite Gilo (from where are all those listed but the first two). The Hamas bomber (named, appropriately, al-Ghoul by AP), who left a note mentioning that this is his third attempt, was from the al-Fara refugee camp near Nablus, West Bank, where his father and others rejoice. Some 50 persons are injured. Some of the victims are Arabs. The al-Aqsa intifada minimum body count now stands at 1403 Palestinians and 530 Israelis. [* = no photo]
[below: site of the suicide bombing]
Taiyo [photo >], 10 months old, of heart failure, giraffe
at the Omoriyama Zoo in Akita, Japan. He had been given a bamboo leg
(it was announced on 16 May 2002), because he had fallen and broken his
right front leg in a run-in with a zebra in March 2002. Taiyo's leg was
initially placed in a cast but it began showing signs of necrosis. Taiyo
means Sun in Japanese. Taiyo was about 2.8 meters tall and weighed 200
2001 Danny Yehuda, 35, Jew shot by Palestinians. He was driving home to the West Bank enclave settlement of Chomesh when a Palestinian taxi passed in the opposite direction, did a U-turn, pursued the car and opened fire. The shots killed Yehuda and his car stopped. The taxi then pulled up alongside, the assailants got out and looked into the car. Lightly wounded passenger Alex Briskin, 17, feigned death and the attackers left.. A faction of Arafat's Fatah faction claimed responsibility for the shooting. This brings the body count of the al-Aqsa intifada, which started on 28 September, to 494 Palestinians and 113 Israelis.
2001 Some 80 Taliban fighters (according to the opposition). ^top^
An opposition alliance fighting Afghanistan's ruling Taliban militia reports heavy fighting in two northern districts that it says killed 80 Taliban fighters. It says that the two sides exchanged artillery and tank fire in two districts of northern Takhar province and that the opposition captured 45 Taliban soldiers. It says that five opposition fighters were wounded, but none died.
The Taliban Islamic militia controls 95% of Afghanistan and is fighting the opposition for the remaining 5%. The civil war, combined with the worst drought in 30 years and the Taliban's medieval extremist so-called Islamic barbarity, has displaced hundreds of thousands of people and given Afghanistan the world's worst refugee problem.
1986 Joan Oliver o Pere Quart, poeta español.
1980 Kazimierz Kuratowski, mathematician
1978 Peter Stefan, mathematician
1975 Faisal Ibn Mussed Abdul Aziz Saudi prince, beheaded in Riyadh shopping center parking lot for killing his uncle the king.
1974 Georgi Zhukov, 78, Russian Marshal (WW II)
1928 Roald Amundsen et ses co-équipiers de l’hydravion Latham-47. A son bord, le célèbre Amundsen. Il recherche les survivants de la catastrophe du dirigeable " Italia " (qui veut ouvrir la première liaison au-dessus du Pôle Nord). L’expédition se disparait "corps et biens" dans la Mer de Barrentz. El explorador noruego Roald Amundsen desaparece en el Ártico cuando trataba de localizar el dirigible de Umberto Nobile
1920 Mario Puccini, Italian artist born ot 28 June 1869.
1916 Helmuth Johan Ludwig Von Moltke, general alemán y jefe del Estado Mayor.
1897 Karl Herpfer, German artist born on 30 November 1836.
1888 Sergio Arboleda de Pombo [< retrato], escritor y político colombiano. Sergio Arboleda nació el 11 de octubre de 1822. En 1876 fue jefe de la revolución en el Cauca, miembro de la Cámara Provincial de Popayán y secretario de la misma, vocal de las municipalidades de Popayán y Santander, diputado a las Legislaturas caucanas de 1857 y 1873, representante al Congreso en 1860 y, posteriormente, senador por el Tolima (1872, 73, 76). Publicó numerosos opúsculos políticos, religiosos o de temas científicos e industriales, destacándose su ensayo La República en la América española, suscrito con el anagrama Gabriel de Soroa, y un libro, Rudimentos de geografía, cronología e historia.
1865 Antoine Joseph Wiertz, Belgian painter born on 22 February 1806. He specialized in Historical Subjects. MORE ON WIERTZ AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS Triptych Christ in the Tomb: left section: Eve experiencing her first guilt after sinning _ right section: The Angel of Evil The Beautiful Rosine
1844 Juan Bautista Alberdi, escritor y pensador argentino.
1464 Rogier de la Pasture van der Weyden, Flemish Northern Renaissance painter born in 1399 or 1400. MORE ON VAN DER WEYDEN AT ART 4 JUNE Commentaries and links to reproductions, of whole and many details, of: Deposition Saint Luke Madonna Annunciacion Triptych Miraflores Altarpiece Seven Sacraments Altarpiece Crucifixion Altarpiece Bladelin Triptych Last Judgement Polyptych Braque Family Triptych Saint Columba Altarpiece Saint John Altarpiece Other altarpieces Other Crucifixions Portraits Other paintings
| Births which occurred on
a June 18:
1937 John D (Jay) Rockefeller IV (Sen-III)
1913 Sylvia Porter financial writer (Sylvia Porter's Money Book)
1913 Oswald Teichmüller, mathematician
1886 George Mallory England, mountain climber ("because it is there")
1884 Charles Weatherburn, mathematician
1877 James Montgomery Flagg, US illustrator, poster artist, and portrait painter known for his illustrations of buxom girls and particularly for his "I WANT YOU" 1917 recruiting poster [click on image to enlarge >]. He wrote an autobiography, Roses and Buckshot (1946). He died on 27 May 1960.
1869 Leo Putz, German artist who died in 1940.
1868 Nicolás Horthy de Nagybanya, jefe de estado de Hungría.
1866 Marcelino Santa María y Sedano, Spanish artist who died in 1953.
1858 Andrew Forsyth, mathematician
1845 Charles Louis Aphonse Laveran, médico, patólogo y parasitólogo francés.
1816 Léon Victor Dupré, French artist who died in 1879. LINKS At the Watering Hole On the Way to the Cottage
1815 George Elliot, industrial y financiero inglés.
1812 Ivan Goncharov Russia, novelist/travel writer (Oblomov)
1808 Manuel María Mallarino, político y escritor colombiano.
1716 Joseph Marie Vien, French Neoclassical painter who died on 27 March 1809. His students included Jacques-Louis David and Jacques Gamelin. Young Greek Maidens Deck Sleeping Cupid With Flowers The Cupid Seller Académie.
1681 Feofan Prokopovich theologian, archbishop of Novgorod, westernizer.
1621 Allart van Everdingen, Dutch landscape and marine painter who died on 08 November 1675. MORE ON EVERDINGEN AT ART 4 JUNE Hendrick Trip's Cannon Foundry at Julita Bruk, Södermanland, Sweden End of Village Forest Scene with Water-Mill . Four Muses with Pegasus 61 etchings at Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco.