CURRENT UPDATES: TODAY2 TO TODAY+2
• Boxer rebellion... • West Virginia becomes a state... • Taft~Hartley law vetoed in vain... • Trans~Alaska pipeline... • US~USSR hot line... • Défaite des Huns... • Naissance de Louis le Pieux... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Naissance d'Offenbach... • Westmoreland commands US forces in Vietnam...
a June 20:
2002 On the New York stock exchange, the stock of Malan Realty Investors (MAL) rises from its previous close of $4.07 to an intraday high of $5.65 and closes at $5.61. It had traded as low as 3.52 on 14 June 2002, and as high as $19.38 on 12 December 1997. The company has just announced a liquidation plan worth $4.75 to $8.00 per share. [5~year price chart >]
2002 In Atkins v. Virginia (01-8452), the US Supreme Court reverses its Penry v. Lynaugh 5-4 decision of 1989 which ruled that the execution of the mentally retarded (then banned by only 2 US states) was constitutional. 6-3 the Court now says that such executions have become unusual and therefore cruel, in part because 18 US states now prohibit them (12 US states do not have the death penalty at all). Daryl Renard Atkins (IQ 59) had been convicted of the murder of Eric Michael Nesbitt and sentenced to death. The court defines mental retardation as an IQ before 70 together with evidence of retardation before age 21. In the afternoon of 16 August 1996, Atkins and his friend, William Jones, were drinking and smoking marijuana at Atkin's home. Later that evening Atkins and Jones walked to a nearby store to buy more beer. In the parking lot of the store, Atkins told Jones that he did not have enough money and would panhandle to get the money for the beer. Afterwards, Atkins and Jones abducted Eric Nesbitt and drove him to a field, where Atkins allegedly shot and killed him. During the investigation of the crime, Atkins made a statement to police in which he claimed that Jones was actually the one who shot and killed Nesbitt. However, at trial, the jury found Atkins guilty of capital murder. During sentencing, the jury found both the future dangerousness and the vileness aggravating factors. The trial judge accepted the jury's recommendation and sentenced him to death. Atkins has been on death row since 28 April 1998, while various appeals were made.
2002 Israeli Brigadier General Yitzhak Yaakov [< photo], who was convicted in May 2002 of harming Israel's national security in connection with two books he wrote on Israel's weapons development programs, is given a two-year suspended sentence by the Tel Aviv District Court. Yaakov, 76, former head of the Israel Defense Forces' weapons research and development program, was acquitted of the charges of passing on secret information without authority and with the intention of harming state security. But he was found guilty of the lesser charge of unauthorized handing over of secret information. He has already spent 14 months in detention. The charges against Yaakov stemmed from two books he wrote in the last few years a memoir and a novel that, according to the prosecution, contained real data.
2000 After intense last-minute lobbying by the Clinton administration, the US Senate votes 57-42 to make it easier for federal prosecutors to try hate crimes, attaching the measure to a defense authorization bill. (However, the House of Representatives would remove this amendment in October 2000.)
1999 NATO declares an official end to its bombing campaign of Yugoslavia.
1997 El hasta ese momento secretario general del Partido Socialista Obrero Español, Felipe González anunció que no sería candidato a la secretaría general del partido, durante el XXXIV Congreso Federal de esta formación política. Le sustituyó Joaquín Almunia.
1996 Westinghouse Electric agrees to buy Infinity Broadcasting for $3.9 billion.
1996 Oracle releases InterOffice
Launching an attack on Lotus Notes and Microsoft Exchange, Oracle released InterOffice, a program that allowed multiple users to work together on documents. Oracle's new product joined the increasingly popular market for "groupware," dominated by Lotus and Microsoft.
1996 Largest radio broadcasters merge
The two largest radio broadcasting companies in the United States, Westinghouse Electric Corporation and Infinity Broadcasting Corporation, merged. Federal communications law had recently lifted restrictions on the number of radio stations one company could own: Together, the combined firms ran eighty-three stations.
1995 Decisión histórica de la UE al crear la Oficina Europea de Policía (Europol).
1993 Un tren de alta velocidad atraviesa por primera vez el canal de la Mancha por el túnel submarino que une Francia con Gran Bretaña, en 2:30 horas.
1992 Se promulga la actual Constitución de Paraguay.
1991 Le Reichstag de l’Allemagne réunifiée décide de prendre Berlin comme capitale. German lawmakers vote to move the seat of the national government back to Berlin. El Parlamento alemán decide que la sede del Gobierno y la capital de la Alemania recién unificada sea Berlín.
1990 La Comisión de Peticiones del Parlamento Europeo aprueba, tras dos años de tramitación, el reconocimiento del catalán como "lengua viva" en las instancias comunitarias.
1983 Otelo Saraiva, estratega de la revolución portuguesa del 25 Apr 1974, es detenido, acusado de dirigir un grupo terrorista.
Alaska pipeline starts operating. :
Prudhoe Bay near the Arctic Circle is the largest oil reserve in North America, but early attempts at drilling were thwarted by the region's remoteness and concern for its ecosystem. However, the Arab oil embargoes of the 1970s prompted action, and on 20 June 1977, construction of the Trans-Alaskan pipeline was completed. Oil flows south 1286 km from Prudhoe Bay and exits 38 days later at the port of Valdez.
With a flip of a switch in Prudhoe Bay, crude oil from the nation's largest oil field begins flowing south down the trans-Alaska pipeline to the ice-free port of Valdez, Alaska. The steel pipeline, 48 inches in diameter, winds through 1286 kilometers of Alaskan wilderness, crossing three Arctic mountain ranges and hundreds of rivers and streams. Environmentalists fought to prevent its construction, saying it would destroy a pristine ecosystem, but they were ultimately overruled by Congress, who saw it as a way of lessening America's dependence on foreign oil. The trans-Alaska pipeline was the world's largest privately funded construction project to that date, costing $8 billion and taking three years to build.
In 1968, a massive oil field was discovered on the north coast of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay. Located north of the Arctic Circle, the ice-packed waters of the Beaufort Sea are inaccessible to oil tankers. In 1972, the Department of the Interior authorized drilling there, and after the Arab oil embargo of 1973 plans moved quickly to begin construction of a pipeline. The Alyeska Pipeline Service Co. was formed by a consortium of major oil companies, and in 1974 construction began.
US conservation groups argued that the pipeline would destroy caribou habitats in the Arctic, melt the fragile permafrost permanently frozen subsoil along its route, and pollute the salmon-rich waters of the Prince William Sound at Valdez. Under pressure, Alyeska agreed to extensive environmental precautions, including building 50 percent of the pipeline above the ground to protect the permafrost from the naturally heated crude oil and to permit passage of caribou underneath.
On 20 June 1977, oil begins flowing down the pipeline. However, power supply problems, a cracked section of pipe, faulty welds, and an unsuccessful dynamite attack on the pipeline outside of Fairbanks delay the arrival of oil at Valdez for several weeks. In August, the first oil tanker would leave Valdez en route to the lower 48 states. The trans-Alaska pipeline proved a great boon to the Alaskan economy; it soon was delivering more than one million gallons of oil per day, or about 15% of America's total oil production. At its peak production in the late 1980s, it delivered over two million gallons a year. Today, it produces just over a million gallons a day.
For its first decade of existence, the pipeline was quietly applauded as an environmental success. Caribou populations in the vicinity of the pipeline actually grew (due in part to the departure of grizzly bears and wolves scared off by the pipeline work), and the permafrost remained intact. The only major oil spill on land occurred when an unknown saboteur blew a hole in the pipe near Fairbanks, and two million liters of oil spilled onto the ground. On 24 March 1989, however, the worst fears of environmentalists were realized when the Exxon Valdez ran aground in the Prince William Sound after filling up at the port of Valdez. Ten million gallons of oil were dumped into the water, devastating hundreds of miles of coastline. In the 1990s, the Alaskan oil enterprise drew further controversy when the Alyeska Pipeline Service Co. attempted to cover up electrical and mechanical problems in the aging pipeline.
In 2001, President George W. Bush (Jr.) proposed opening a portion of the 8-million-hectare Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, east of Prudhoe Bay, to oil drilling. The proposal was greeted with overwhelming opposition from environmental groups.
1972 Lanzamiento al espacio de la nave espacial estadounidense
Pioneer-10, que 21 años después hubiera sobrepasado la órbita
de Plutón y recorrido 10'000 millones de kilómetros.
1956 Declaración ruso-yugoslava en Moscú, que recoge las ideas de Tito sobre la pluralidad de vías hacia el socialismo.
1955 The AFL and CIO agree to combine names for a merged group
1951 Las autoridades iraníes confiscan las instalaciones petrolíferas de Abadan.
|1947 US President
Truman vetoes Taft-Hartley
Act (officially ''Labor
Management Relations Act, 1947'') but then does little to avoid the
override vote in Congress.. ^top^
Republicans and spineless Democrats dominated the Congress. In the White House sat a Democratic president who identified more with business than with labor. The mood was aggressively anti-worker. Legislators stomped around calling for laws to reign in "big labor." In fact, over 200 anti-labor bills were pending in Congress. It was 1947.
The anti-labor drive in Congress came to focus on two bills: The House bill was introduced by Rep. Fred Hartley (R-NJ), a right-winger who had been friendly to Hitler Germany and imperial Japan right up to the eve of World War 2. A roughly similar bill was introduced in the Senate by Sen. Robert A. Taft (R-Ohio), the ultraconservative, wealthy son of a US president who had political ambitions of his own. But both bills were written by lobbyists for corporations like General Electric, Allis-Chalmers, Inland Steel, J.I. Case, and Chrysler, and the Rockefeller interests.
A WORKERS' NIGHTMARE
The measures were a workers' nightmare: They restored anti-strike injunctions; limited labor's ability to mass picket; prohibited secondary boycotts; restricted political contributions by unions; outlawed welfare funds not jointly controlled by management; authorized employer interference in organizing; denied "economic" strikers the right to vote in representation elections; allowed bosses to fire workers for some types of union activity; outlawed the closed shop, and authorized states to ban the union shop; opened union treasuries to raids through lawsuits; and interfered in internal union politics by requiring officers to sign affidavits that they were not "communists."
It was no surprise that corporations were out to get the unions: In a little more than a decade, the number of union members in the US had grown from less than 4 million to some 15 million. Labor had flexed its muscles soon after World War 2 ended in 1945 with a series of strikes aimed at dramatically increasing living standards for industrial workers. Electrical, oil, steel, auto, rubber, and packinghouse workers, among others, went on strike simultaneously, bringing the US to the verge of a general strike in basic industry. Their successful job actions modestly redistributed the corporations' bloated war-time profits.
EMPLOYERS VS. NEW DEAL
In response, corporations were mounting an attack on New Deal legislation that had given workers some of their newfound strength. Big business also employed the Cold War to whip up a " red scare" that wreaked internal havoc in unions across the country. C.E. Wilson, head of General Electric, frankly declared the Cold War had two targets: labor at home, and the Soviet Union abroad.
In April 1947, the CIO organized a "Defend Labor" month, urging mass actions, plant-gate rallies, and an all-out campaign to get resolutions, letters and telegrams sent to Washington to counter Taft-Hartley and the whole labor assault. Sixty members of the United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America (UE) spent a frustrating two days trying to convince members of Congress that any of the 200-plus anti-labor bills would be disastrous. They didn't get a good reception: Taft refused to meet with them. Indiana's Sen. Homer Capehart, a manufacturer employing UE members, told the union delegation he was "against big business, big unions, and big government. But I'll start on big unions."
On 17 April, the House passed the Hartley bill. And on May 13, 1947, the Senate voted 68-21 to adopt the Taft bill. Democrats were split exactly 50-50, with 21 voting for, and 21 against.
Heavy pressure convinced President Harry Truman to veto the bill at the last minute. But he did little to influence the override vote that followed. Both House and Senate voted to override the veto.
LABOR'S BALL AND CHAIN
Taft-Hartley has been labor's ball and chain ever since. Early on, labor made a bid at resisting the law. UE, the Steelworkers, and other CIO unions pledged not to cooperate with the new Taft-Hartley Labor Board. CIO president Philip Murray and Mineworkers president John L. Lewis vowed they would not sign the measure's red-scare affidavit. But within a few years, unions were forced to submit.
In 1953, US News and World Report could ask, "Are Unions Slipping? No Growth in Six Years." In 1946, the CIO's membership had been 6.3 million; by 1954, it was 4.6 million. Overall, union membership fell from 33.7% of the labor force in 1947 to 31.5% in 1950. Although union membership began rising slowly to reach a post-war high of 34.7% in 1954, that was followed by a steady decline, aided heavily by the employer tools supplied by Taft-Hartley. Under the legislation, employers can get in the way of almost every union activity from organizing the shop to going on strike to mobilizing community support for a campaign.
CAN'T GET RID OF IT
With the Democratic Party moving ever rightward, repeal of Taft-Hartley has stayed on labor's back burner. An effort to get part of the bill repealed during the Carter administration failed miserably despite a large Democratic majority in both houses. The return of a Democratic President and Democrat-controlled Congress in 1993-94 did not raise real hope of repealing Taft-Hartley. And yet US workers both the organized and the unorganized unwittingly suffer the effects of Taft-Hartley every working day.
| 1944 Vice Admiral Marc Mitchner, commander of the US Task Force
58, orders all lights on his ships turned on to help guide his carrier-based
pilots back from the Battle of the Philippine Sea. The
greatest aircraft carrier duel.
1943 Race riots start in Detroit; US federal troops would be sent in two days later, there would be more than 30 deaths.
1939 Test flight of first rocket plane using liquid propellants
1937 Tres pilotos soviéticos sobrevuelan el Polo Norte, de Moscú a Vancouver.
1923 Fuerte erupción del volcán Etna en la isla de Sicilia.
1910 Mexican President Porfirio Diaz proclaims martial law and arrests hundreds.
1898 On the way to the Philippines to fight the Spanish, , the US cruiser Charleston seizes the island of Guam. The Battle of Manila Bay went by a plan devised days earlier in Hong Kong. Guerra entre Estados Unidos y España. Un buque estadounidense se apodera del archipiélago de las Marianas, posesión española.
1895 Nicaragua, El Salvador and Honduras form a short-lived confederation Por iniciativa de Policarpo Bonilla, presidente de Honduras, se firma el pacto de Amapala, acuerdo entre el Salvador, Nicaragua y Honduras cuyo objetivo era la creación de la República Mayor de Centroamérica, proyecto heredero de las Provincias Unidas.
1895 Apertura oficial del Canal de Kiel, en Alemania.
1871 Ku Klux Klan trials began in federal court in Oxford Miss
1867 Pres Andrew Johnson announces purchase of Alaska
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1860 Tras la batalla de Malazzo, en Sicilia, Garibaldi queda dueño de la isla, a excepción de la ciudad de Messina.
1855 Commissioners appointed to lay out SF streets west of Larkin
1837 England issues its first stamp, 1P Queen Victoria
1837 Queen Victoria, 18, ascends British throne following death of uncle King William IV She would reign for 63 years ending in 1901
1833 Las Cortes declaran a Isabel II heredera del trono de España.
1819 Savannah becomes first steamship to cross any ocean (Atlantic)
1779 Battle of Stone Ferry
1599 The Synod of Diamper reunited a native church in India with Rome. Discovered in 1498 by Portuguese explorers, this isolated pocket of worshipers traced their Christian origins back to the missionary efforts of the Apostle Thomas.
1567 Jews are expelled from Brazil by order of regent Don Henrique
1529 Clement VII and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V signed the Peace of Barcelona, which ended attacks on Rome by the Lutheran armies.
1402 Battle of Angora (Ankara)-Tatars defeat Turkish Army.
1397 The Union of Kalmar unites Denmark, Sweden, and Norway under one monarch.
which occurred on a June 20: ^top^
2002 Rachel Shabbo, three of her sons, Neria, 15, Zvika, 12, and Avishai, 5; Yosef Twito; and one of two Palestinian gunmen who attack the Itamar enclave settlement, south of Nablus, West Bank, where Twito was a security officer. Two of the surviving four Shabbo children are among the four injured.
Shortly after 21:00, two Palestinians armed with assault rifles and hand grenades entered the settlement, only part of which is fenced.The two broke into the Shabbo home and shot at the family inside (the father was away), then holed up inside the house and began shooting in all directions. Israeli troops rushed to the scene and laid siege to the house. The firefight lasted for almost an hour before troops from an undercover Border Police unit succeeded in killing the terrorists. Two border policemen were wounded during the battle one seriously and the other lightly. The soldiers and Magen David Adom crews began evacuating the injured while the firefight was still taking place, but four of the victims proved to be mortally wounded and died shortly thereafter. The house went up in flames.
2002 Simon John Veness, by a car bomb in his 4-wheel-drive vehicle, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, where the British national worked at Al Bank Al Saudi Al Fransi.
2002:: 115 miners in a gas explosion in the Chengzihe Coal Mine, Heilongjiang Province, northeast China. The other 24 miners who were working with them are injured. The mine has 5500 workers, extracting 1.1 million tons of coal annually.
2002 Timothy Irving Frederick Tiff Findley, Canadian author, from complications of a pelvis fracture some months earlier; he was also a heavy smoker and had congestive heart failure. Born on 30 October 1930, he started out as an actor for 15 years. Then he wrote 12 novels (including The Wars about the emotional breakdown of a World War I soldier Not Wanted on the Voyage 1985 about dissension on Noah's Ark The Telling of Lies 1988 a mystery The Piano Man's Daughter 1996 Pilgrim 1999 a mix of mystery, religion, history, psychology and philosophy Spadework 2001), 2 short story collections, 2 memoirs and 5 plays (including Elizabeth Rex 2002 about a meeting between Shakespeare and Elizabeth I Shadows nearing completion in 2002)
| 2001 Luke, 2, Paul, 3, John, 5, Noah, 7, Mary, 6~months, in
Houston, drowned in bathtub by their mother Andrea Pia Yates,
36, a former nurse, who then, at about 10:00, calls police, confesses,
and surrenders, in her home in the 900 block of Beachcomber in Clear
Lake, a Houston suburb.
Her husband, Russell Yates, a computer specialist at NASA, says that she was suffering from post-partum depression. Ms. Yates had attempted suicide on 18 June 1999.Luke was the first child to be drowned, followed by Paul, and John. After each child died, she carried its body into a bedroom, put it on a bed and covered it with a sheet. Noah walked into the bathroom and saw her holding Mary. "What's wrong with Mary?" Noah asked. His mother chased Noah through the house, dragged him back to the bathroom and drowned him next to Mary. Andrea Yates would be tried under Texas law for the murders of John, Mary, and Noah only; on 12 March 2000, found guilty despite her acknowleged insanity; and, on 15 March 2002, sentenced to life in prison with the possibility of parole after 40 years.
[Andrea Yates escorted from court after being arraigned before State District Judge Belinda Hill in an auxilliary Harris County court room, 22 June 2001 >]
1995 Emile Michel Cioran, filósofo nihilista rumano.
1990 40'000-50'000 die in a (7.6) earthquake in Iran
1979 Bill Stewart, ABC News correspondent, shot in Managua, Nicaragua, by a member of President Anastasio Somoza's national guard.
1966 Georges Lemaître, 71, originator of "big bang" theory
1963 Joseph Self murderer, executed; last Washington state execution in 25 years.
1947 Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel, organized crime leader, Las Vegas developer, shot. ^top^
"Bugsy", the man who brought organized crime to the West Coast, is shot and killed at his mistress Virginia Hill's home in Beverly Hills, California. Siegel had been talking to his associate Allen Smiley when three bullets were fired through the window and into his head, killing him instantly.
Siegel's childhood had been pretty similar to that of other organized crime leaders: Growing up with little money in Brooklyn, he managed to establish himself as a teenaged thug. With his pal Meyer Lansky, Siegel terrorized local peddlers and collected protection money. Before long, they had a business that included bootlegging and gambling all over New York City.
By the late 1930s, Siegel had become one of the major players of a highly powerful crime syndicate, which gave him $500'000 to set up a Los Angeles franchise. Bugsy threw himself into the Hollywood scene, making friends with some of the biggest names of the time Cary Grant, Clark Gable, and Jean Harlow. His all-night parties made his Beverly Hills mansion the hot spot in town. He also started up a solid gambling and narcotics operation to keep his old friends back East happy.
Just before World War II began, Siegel traveled to Italy to sell explosives to Mussolini, but the deal fizzled when tests of the explosives did too. In 1945, Siegel had a brilliant idea. Just a four-hour drive away from Los Angeles was the sleepy desert town of Las Vegas, Nevada. It had nothing going for it except for a compliant local government and legalized gambling. Siegel decided to build the Flamingo Hotel in the middle of the desert with $6'000'000, a chunk of which came from the New York syndicate.
Although Siegel's idea established the gambling capital we know today, the Flamingo wasn't immediately profitable, and Siegel ended up in an argument with Lucky Luciano over paying back the money used to build it. Around the same time that Siegel was killed in Beverly Hills, Luciano's men walked into the Flamingo and announced that they were now in charge. Even Siegel probably never imagined the astounding growth and success of Las Vegas in the subsequent years.
1963 Salem, mathematician.
1870 Jules Goncourt, escritor francés.
1837 King William IV of England Guillermo IV, rey de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda y elector de Hanover.
1820 Manuel Belgrano, uno de los próceres de la independencia de Argentina y creador de la bandera nacional.
1800 Kaestner, mathematician.
Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
ci-devant premier vicaire de Saint-Roche exécuté.
Essayant désespérément d'échapper à la guillotine, M. Gravier ne cessait d'écrire : ses lettres, datées du "réfectoire de l'Abbaye", adressés à Guffroy, à David, à Vadier, à d'autres notoires jacobins, se suivaient de quinzaine en quinzaine, jusqu'à la veille de sa mort, et, chaque fois, hélas ! le malheureux tombait un peu plus bas dans une honteuse déchéance.
Au début, il se contente de déplorer "son malheur d'avoir été prêtre" et d'énumérer ses services patriotiques depuis la prise de la Bastille jusqu'au 10 août; bientôt il laisse entendre qu'il est prêt à devenir un dénonciateur, "sa qualité d'ex-prêtre le mettant à même de donner des renseignements utils sur les dévôts" ; il va plus loin et ne craint pas de signaler, comme entretenant une correspondance suivie avec des fanatiques du dehors, un de ses compagnons de captivité, "Le plus aristocrate, le plus fanatique des vicaires de Saint-Roch"; est-ce de M. de Lamarre ou de M. Ledoux qu'il sagit? On peut le craindre. Sa dernière supplique, datée du 22 prairial (10 juin), est la plus triste de toutes: voyant que ses appels restent vains, il tente d'apitoyer le Comité de Sûreté générale en évoquant l'union coupable qu'il avait avec sa servante: " Lorsque je fus injustement et arbitrairement arrêté, j'étais à la veille d'épouser une fille pauvre, plus pauvre que moi, puisqu'elle était ma domestique; cette femme infortunée se trouve enceinte de huit mois et prête d'accoucher... Ainsi nous serons bientôt trois malheureuses victimes de l'indigence, de la misère..." Ne lui rendra-t-on pas la liberté "pour sauver de la mort l'enfant qui va naître ? "
Rien n'y fera : le 2 messidor (20 juin), Gravier est exécuté avec MM. de Lamarre et Ledoux. Le soir même, l'huissier Mazurier se transporte au domicile des condamnés pour y apposer les scellés sur leur mobilier, devenu propriété de la Nation. La maitresse du premier vicaire, Reine-Louise Mausin, assiste à l'opération et prélève ses effets personnels; on lui laisse même un peu de linge "vu l'état de grossesse où elle est des œuvres de Gravier et dont elle est prête d'accoucher" . Le reste est saisi pour être vendu, et l'inventaire évoque ce qu'était le cadre de vie d'un prêtre parisien à cette époque: une chambre seulement, avec lit tendu de toile de Jouy, des fauteuils paillés, un bureau et une commode d'acajou à filets de cuivre et dessus de marbre blanc, une fontaine de grès et deux glaces de bois doré ornées de paniers de fleurs et de trophées de jardinage... Sur cette vision d'un intérieur coquet, très XVIII°, s'achève le pitoyable roman d'un malheureux apostat.
1597 Willem Barents, marino y explorador holandés.
|0840 Louis 1er ''le
pieux'' ou ''le débonnaire'', 62 ans.
Au moment de mourir à Ingelheim, près de Mayence, de chagrin et d'inanition, le roi murmure à propos de son fils rebelle, Louis le Germanique : "Je lui pardonne, mais dites-lui que Dieu, vengeur des pères, punit dans la colère les enfants rebelles."
Reconnu officiellement '1er roi de France'' (contre roi des Francs pour ses prédécesseurs). Né en 778, il est le 3ème fils de Charlemagne et son seul héritier des dix-neuf enfants qu'il a eu avec ses neuf épouses successives. Louis est élevé à la dignité de roi d'Aquitaine en 781.
Le 11 septembre 813, Charlemagne le fait sacrer à Aix-la-Chapelle, il règne alors associé à son père Charlemagne. Il devient empereur d'Occident à la mort de ce dernier en 814, et règne jusqu'en 833. En 817, il partage son empire en 3 sous-royaumes entre ses fils: Louis le Germanique reçoit la Bavière, Pépin II reçoit l'Aquitaine (''roi des Aquitains''), Lothaire 1er reçoit la couronne germanique, plus le royaume du Centre.
En 823, naissance de son 4ème fils Charles (qui deviendra Charles le Chauve). D'une grande piété, Louis 1er se laissa manipuler par le clergé ainsi que par sa deuxième femme Judith, qui cherchait à augmenter l'héritage de son seul fils Charles. L'empire tomba alors dans de régulières guerres entre père et fils, et entre frères, toujours au sujet du partage de l'empire. Lothaire fut couronné en 823, Pépin mourut mais en laissant des héritiers, et Louis (le fils) fut vaincu par son père.
En 829, Louis 1er veut modifier le partage effectué en 817. En 833, il sera déposé par ses fils qui l'enlèvent, puis restauré sur le trône en 835 par Louis le Germanique et Pépin II afin de contrebalançer le poids pris par Lothaire 1er.
[Ci-dessous: Enluminure: Louis le Pieux, emprisonné à Soissons, vole l'épée de son gardien endormi]
which occurred on a June 20:
1943 National Congress of Racial Equality organizes
1940 José María Benet y Jornet, dramaturgo español
1928 Jean-Marie Le-Pen, France, leader extreme-right National Front party, anti-immigrant. He would win a surprise second place in the first round of the presidential elections on 21 April 2002, but loose overwhelmingly in the 05 May 2002 runoff to Chirac, who was reelected with 82% of the vote.
1924 Audie Murphy, the most decorated American soldier of World War II who went on to make movies and write a book about his war experiences called To Hell and Back.
1917 Helena Rasiowa, mathematician
1913 Juan de Borbón y Battenberg, hijo de Alfonso XIII y padre del rey Juan Carlos I de España.
1911 NAACP incorporates (NY)
1891 John Aloysius Costello, político irlandés.
1887 Kurt Schwitters, born in Hannover, German painter, sculptor, and writer, founder of the Merz Dadaist movement, who died on 08 January 1948 in England. Hitler Mz.410 Quadrate Santa Claus Das Schwein niest zum Herzen Graveyard Difficult Rainbow Cross PHR Pino Antonin (the titles are not descriptive: they are almost all collages)
1873 Alfred Loewy, mathematician.
1869 Lucy Elizabeth Kemp-Welch, British painter specialized in horses, who died on 27 November 1958.
1861 Pedro Figari, Uruguayan artist who died on 24 June 1938.
1838 Theodor Reye, mathematician.
1832 Léon Jean Basile Perrault, French painter who died in 1980.
1793 Cotton gin patent applied for by Eli Whitney.
1775 Jacques Français, mathematician.
1723 Adam Ferguson, Scottish man of letters, philosopher, historian, and patriot who wrote Principles of Moral and Political Science. FERGUSON ONLINE: An Essay on the History of Civil Society.
1688 James III of England, "the Pretender".
1674 Nicholas Rowe England, poet laureate (Jane Shore, Tamerlane). ROWE ONLINE: The Tragedy of Jane Shore (1714)