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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 23
[For events of Jun 22  Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jul 031700s: Jul 041800s: Jul 051900~2099: Jul 06]
IF SOMETHING'S WRONG HERE, TRY MIRROR 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17
• Egypt “elects” its first president... • US~USSR summit... • Spy Fuchs released... • A tous les Français... • Fin du voyage de Jean~Paul II en Pologne... • Lee confers with his generals... • Texas votes for Annexation... • Toma de Zacatecas... • Malcolm X widow dies burned by grandson... • Hudson set adrift by mutineers...
click for more monkey businessclick for more monkey businessOn a June 23:

Conservation International announces the discovery of two previously unknown species of titi monkeys in the Amazon.
1998 CompUSA buys Tandy's Computer City
      CompUSA agrees to buy Tandy's Computer City chain. The deal increases the size and influence of CompUSA. Computer retailers found themselves under increasing pressure in the late 1990s as discount computer orders online became more and more popular with consumers.
1998. Eltsine et Kirienko présentent un plan de sortie de la crise, jugée "alarmante". constitué surtout de mesures fiscales.
1995 Visa and MasterCard team up       ^top^
      Credit-card giants Visa International and MasterCard International announce that they will work together to create a secure system for credit-card payment on the Internet. The companies had pursued separate systems with different software firms previously: Visa had teamed up with Microsoft, and MasterCard with Netscape. By working together, the credit-card companies agree to avoid a bitter and damaging struggle to define a standard for online credit-card payments. Industry experts said the alliance would speed the acceptance of online shopping among both consumers and vendors.
1992 Life sentence sticks to Teflon Don       ^top^
      Mafia boss John Gotti, who was nicknamed the "Teflon Don" after escaping unscathed from several trials during the 1980s, was sentenced to life in prison after being found guilty on fourteen accounts of conspiracy to commit murder and racketeering. Gotti, born and educated on the mean streets of New York City, became head of the powerful Gambino family after boss Paul Castellano was murdered outside a steakhouse in Manhattan in December of 1985. The New York gangland assassination, the first in three decades, was organized by Gotti and his colleague Sammy "The Bull" Gravano. Over the next five years, Gotti rapidly expanded his Mafia empire and, despite wide publicity of his criminal activities, managed to avoid prosecution several times, usually through witness intimidation. However, in 1990, he was indicted with conspiracy to commit murder in the death of Paul Castellano, and in 1991, Gravano agreed to testify against him in a federal district court in exchange for a reduced prison sentence. On April 2, 1992, John Gotti was found guilty on all counts, and on June 23 was sentenced to multiple life terms without the possibility of parole.
1989 The US Supreme Court rules unconstitutional a law banning all sexually-oriented phone message services.
1983 Fin du premier voyage du Pape Polonais Jean-Paul II en Pologne.       ^top^
      En 1982, coexistent en Pologne quatre forces inhabituelles dans un système socialiste : le parti, l’armée, l’Église catholique et les travailleurs attachés à l’idéal et souvent aux structures de Solidarité. Les nouveaux syndicats officiels, créés à la fin de 1982 après la liquidation formelle de Solidarité (le 08 octobre), n’ont réussi à regrouper jusqu’en juillet 1983 que 2500 adhérents. D’ailleurs, le parti a été abandonné par presque un million de ses adhérents. L’état de guerre a abouti au départ de 244 juges (dont 28 ont été renvoyés par le Conseil d’État) sur 3400 magistrats. En 1982, la procédure sommaire propre à l’état de guerre a été appliquée dans 3700 cas. L’année 1983 est marquée par la suspension de l’état de guerre et par quelques progrès dans la normalisation du pays qui, cependant, reste bouleversé, déprimé, sympathisant avec les structures clandestines de Solidarité et refusant dans son immense majorité son soutien au régime militaire.
      Au lieu de servir à stabiliser le pays, le prestige de l’armée est sorti réduit de cette épreuve, selon des sondages officiels gardés toutefois secrets. La visite de Jean-Paul II en Pologne du 16 au 23 juin 1983 confirme le soutien moral et spirituel du Saint Père aux justes revendications humaines et sociales des Polonais. Le pape redonne courage à la population, et en même temps il met en garde le pouvoir en place qui se trouve, pour la troisième année consécutive, soumis à la pression des dirigeants soviétiques, est-allemands et tchécoslovaques, d’une part, et à une pression populaire, d’autre part. Ainsi, la force du verbe se révèle aussi puissante que celle de l’énorme appareil policier et militaire d’une puissance mondiale exigeant du gouvernement polonais qu’il fasse "revenir en arrière le cours des événements".
      Après l’indescriptible succès du voyage papal en Pologne, l’état de guerre est levé par la Diète, sur proposition du général Jaruzelski, chef de l’état, le 22 Jul 1983. Encore une période qui est close par une conclusion évidente pour beaucoup : on ne peut pas gouverner le pays réel contre la société, tant le pouvoir que la nation en sont conscients.
1982 –83ºC; all time low temperature at the South Pole
1982 Himmy, of Australia, weighs in at domestic cat record 20.7 kg.
1972 Hurricane Agnes is costliest natural disaster in US history
1972 US President Nixon and White House chief of staff H.R. Haldeman discuss a plan to use the CIA to obstruct the FBI's Watergate investigation. (Revelation of the tape recording of this conversation would lead to Nixon's resignation in 1974.)
1970 Charles Rangel defeats Adam Clayton Powell in Democratic primary
1969 Warren E Burger sworn in as US Supreme Court Chief Justice by the man he is succeeding, Earl Warren.
1969 North Vietnamese encircle Ben Het       ^top^
      Ben Het, a US Special Forces camp located 463 km northeast of Saigon and ten km from the junction of the Cambodian, Laotian and South Vietnamese borders, is besieged and cut off by 2000 North Vietnamese soldiers using artillery and mortars. The base was defended by 250 US soldiers and 750 South Vietnamese Montagnard tribesmen. The siege would last until 02 July when the defenders are reinforced by an allied relief column.
1967 US Senate censures Thomas J Dodd (D-Ct) for misusing campaign funds
1967 Lyndon B. Johnson meets with Aleksei Kosygin       ^top^
      Hopes for better US-Soviet relations run high as US President Lyndon B. Johnson meets with Soviet Premier Aleksei Kosygin in Glassboro, New Jersey, for a three-day summit. The meeting ended inconclusively, however, as issues such as Vietnam and the Middle East continued to divide the two superpowers. The Johnson-Kosygin meeting was the first time a Soviet premier had met with an American president in the United States since Nikita Khrushchev visited with President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1959. Relations between the two nations were tense. The Middle East was a continuing source of difficulty, as the United States provided massive military and economic support to Israel, and the Soviets duplicated that effort with a number of Arab nations. Less than three weeks prior to the meeting in Glassboro, the Israeli army had scored a smashing victory against Egypt, Syria, and Jordan in the Six-Day War. Vietnam was another Cold War hotspot.
      By mid-1967, the United States had many fighting men in South Vietnam, while the Soviets were providing large amounts of military aid to North Vietnam. The summit between Johnson and Kosygin, it was hoped, might lessen the tensions. Both Johnson and Kosygin set a positive tone in their public statements. Johnson noted that the United States and Soviet Union had a responsibility to act "reasonably and constructively" in order to make it "possible for other countries to live in peace with each other, if this can be done." Kosygin responded by declaring, "I want friendship with the American people and I can assure you we want nothing but peace with the American people." Privately, however, the summit was not considered a success. The Soviets proved inflexible on the major issues. They branded the Israelis as the aggressors in the Middle East and demanded that Israel evacuate the lands seized during the Six-Day War. Concerning Vietnam, the Soviet stance was plain: peace would come when the United States left Vietnam. The Johnson administration publicly declared that the meeting was "very good and very useful." The talks were supposed to continue during a Johnson visit to the Soviet Union in 1968, but a brutal Russian intervention that crushed a revolution in Czechoslovakia led to the cancellation of the trip.
1964 Johnson announces new ambassador to South Vietnam       ^top^
      At a news conference, President Lyndon B. Johnson announces that Henry Cabot Lodge has resigned as ambassador to South Vietnam and that Gen. Maxwell Taylor will be his replacement. It was reliably reported that virtually every top official in the administration volunteered to serve as ambassador. Johnson made a point of insisting that this change would in no way affect the US commitment to South Vietnam. It was also announced that General Westmoreland was to become the "executive agent" to supervise the civilian advisory and assistance programs in three provinces around Saigon, the first stage of a plan to coordinate the entire US military and civilian program in South Vietnam under the military command. Lodge had left his ambassadorial post to pursue the Republican presidential nomination. Ultimately, Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona secured the nomination and was defeated by Johnson in the general election. Lodge returned to Saigon in 1965 for another two-year stint as ambassador.
1959 Klaus Fuchs released       ^top^
      After only nine years in prison, Klaus Fuchs, the German-born Los Alamos scientist whose espionage had helped the USS.R. build their first atomic and hydrogen bombs, is released from a British prison. Fuchs immediately leaves Britain for Communist East Germany, where he resumes his scientific career.
      As a student in prewar Germany, Fuchs had joined the Communist Party, but in 1934 was forced to flee after Nazi leader Adolf Hitler seized power. Settling in Britain, he became a brilliant young scientist, and after World War II broke out Fuchs was granted security clearance despite his Communist past. In 1943, he was sent with other British scientists to the United States to join the top secret US atomic program. Eventually stationed at atomic development headquarters in Los Alamos, New Mexico, Fuchs became an important scientist in the program.
      However, soon after his arrival, he made contact with a Soviet spy and offered precise information about the program, including a blueprint of the “Fat Man” atomic bomb later dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, and everything that the Los Alamos scientists knew about the hypothesized hydrogen bomb. After the war, Fuchs returned to England, where he continued his atomic work and Soviet espionage until 21 December 1949, when a British intelligence officer informed the physicist that he was suspected of having given classified nuclear weapons information to the USS.R.
      The discovery of Fuch’s espionage came four months after the Soviet Union successfully detonated its first atomic bomb. Fuchs pleaded guilty and, on 01 March 1950, after a two-hour trial, was convicted. Despite calls for his execution, by British law he could only be sentenced to fourteen years as he had committed the espionage before the USS.R. was designated an official British enemy.
      The revelation of Fuchs’s espionage was a major factor leading to US President Harry S. Truman’s approval of massive funding for the development of the “hydrogen“ (nuclear fusion) bomb, a weapon theorized to be dozens of times more powerful than the atomic (fission) bombs dropped on Japan. The first US hydrogen bomb was successfully detonated in 1952. Two years later, the Soviet Union detonated its first hydrogen bomb on the same principle of radiation implosion.
1956 Nasser, 38, “elected” president of Egypt       ^top^
      99.95% of Egyptian voters mark their ballots to elect Gamal Abdel Nasser as the first president of the Republic of Egypt. Nasser, who toppled the Egyptian monarchy in 1952 in a military coup, was the only presidential candidate on the ballot. In the same ballot, Nasser's new constitution, under which Egypt became a one-party socialist state with Islam as the official religion, was approved by 99.8%. Gamal Abdel Nasser was born in Alexandria in 1918. As a youth, he participated in demonstrations against British rule in Egypt. After secondary school, he studied at a law college for several months and then entered the Royal Military Academy. In 1938, he graduated as a second lieutenant. While serving in the Sudan during World War II, he helped found a secret revolutionary organization, the Free Officers, whose members sought to overthrow the Egyptian royal family and oust the British. In 1948, Nasser served as a major in the first Arab-Israeli war and was wounded in action.
      On 23 July 1952, Nasser led 89 other Free Officers in an army coup that deposed the regime of King Farouk. A new government was formed by the Nasser-led Revolutionary Command Council, of which Major General Muhammad Naguib was the figurehead leader. In 1954, Nasser emerged from behind the scenes, removed Naguib from power, and proclaimed himself prime minister of Egypt. For the next two years, Nasser ruled as an effective and popular leader and promulgated a new constitution that made Egypt a socialist Arab state, consciously nonaligned with the prevalent communist and democratic-capitalist systems of the Cold War world.
      On 23 June 1956, Egyptian voters overwhelming approved the new constitution and Nasser's presidency. One month later, President Nasser faced a major crisis when the United States and Great Britain reversed their decision to finance a high dam on the Nile River in light of an Egyptian arms agreement with the USSR. In response, Nasser nationalized the British and French-owned Suez Canal, intending to use tolls to pay for his high dam project.
      At the end of October 1956, Israel, Britain, and France attacked Egypt in a joint operation. They occupied the Suez Canal, but Soviet and UN pressure forced Israel, Britain, and France to withdraw, and the Suez Canal was left in Egyptian hands in 1957. The episode greatly enhanced Nasser's prestige in the Arab world, and in 1958 he oversaw the unification of Egypt and Syria as the United Arab Republic, of which he became president. He dreamed of bringing all the Arab world into the United Arab Republic, but in 1961 Syria withdrew from the entity following a military coup, leaving Egypt alone. From 1962 to 1967, Egypt intervened in a civil war in Yemen on behalf of the anti-royalists. In 1967, increased Arab-Israeli tension led Egypt to mobilize its forces and demand the withdrawal of UN peacekeepers from Egypt's Sinai Peninsula. Egypt and five other Arab nations prepared for a united strike against Israel, but Israel preempted the attack, beginning the Six-Day War with the destruction of Egypt's air force on 05 June. Egypt and the other Arab belligerents were decisively defeated, and Israeli forces captured all the Sinai and crossed the Suez Canal. In the aftermath of the military disaster, Nasser attempted to resign, but popular demonstrations and a vote of confidence by the Egyptian National Assembly persuaded him to remain in office.
      After the Six-Day War, Nasser accepted greater Soviet military and economic aid, compromising Egypt's status as a "nonaligned" state, such as Josip Broz Tito's Yugoslavia or Jawaharlal Nehru's India. In July 1970, the Aswan High Dam was completed with Soviet assistance, providing a major boost to the Egyptian economy. Two months later, Nasser died of a heart attack in Cairo. He was succeeded by Anwar el-Sadat, a fellow Free Officer. Despite his military defeats, Nasser was a consistently popular leader during his 18 years in power. His economic policies and land reforms improved the quality of life for many Egyptians, and women were granted many rights during his tenure. His ascendance ended 2300 years of rule by foreigners, and his independent policies won him respect not just in Egypt but throughout the world.
     Election à la présidence de la République Egyptienne du Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser. Son ascension fulgurante l’a poussé aux plus hauts postes de l’état. Lors de la Révolution qui destitua l’ancien roi Farouk, les militaires que commandait ce jeune Colonel remirent le pouvoir aux mains du général Naguib. Celui-ci confia bien sûr des tâches importantes au héros de la Révolution. Il fut président du Conseil et ministre de l’Intérieur. Ce qu’il mit à profit pour asseoir son autorité et "ficher" tous ses adversaires.
      On retiendra de lui, en plus de la défaite dans la Guerre des 6 Jours, contre Israël, la construction du barrage d’Assouan, avec l’appui des Russes, après le refus américain, et la nationalisation du Canal de Suez qui détermine l’intervention des troupes franco-anglaises. Sa popularité en fera le leader charismatique incontesté du monde arabe.
      A month later he nationalized the Suez Canal after Western bankers refused to finance construction of the Aswan Dam. In response, the British, French, and Israelis launched a combined invasion of Egypt. However, a cease-fire was declared under pressure from the US and the UN, and Egypt later gained formal control of the canal.
1951 British diplomats Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean flee to USSR
1947 US President Truman's veto of Taft-Hartley Act overridden by Congress
1944 Thomas Mann becomes a US citizen
1940 Appel de De Gaulle affiché à Londres:       ^top^
La France a perdu une bataille!  
           Mais la France n'a pas perdu la guerre!

     Des  gouvernants  de  rencontre  ont  pu
capituler,  cédant  à  la  panique,   oubliant
l'honneur,  livrant  le  pays  à  la  servitude.
Cependant, rien n'est perdu!                        
        Rien n'est perdu, parce que cette guerre est
une  guerre  mondiale.    Dans  l'univers   libre,
des forces immenses  n'ont  pas  encore  donné.
Un jour, ces forces écraseront l'ennemi. Il faut
que  la  France,  ce  jour-là,  soit  présente à la
victoire.  Alors,  elle retrouvera sa liberté et sa
grandeur.   Tel est  mon but, mon seul but!      
     Voila pourquoi  je convie tous les Français,
où  qu'ils  se  trouvent,   à  s'unir  à  moi  dans
l'action,  dans le sacrifice et dans l'espérance.
Notre patrie est en péril de mort.
Luttons tous pour la sauver!

1940 Retour au pouvoir de Pierre Laval, en tant que premier ministre du Maréchal Pétain, dans le nouvel ordre français. Né le 28 Jun 1883, ce fils d’un petit cafetier d’Auvergne dut travailler pour payer ses études qui lui permirent, en 1907, de s’inscrire au barreau de Paris. Venu de l’extrême gauche, mais dépourvu d’idéalisme, il s’affranchit de tous les partis pour faire carrière grâce à des amitiés personnelles. Avocat, conseiller de nombreux syndicalistes, il est élu député en 1914 puis maire d’Aubervilliers en 1923, fonction qu’il conservera jusqu’à sa mort. Battu aux élections en 1919, il est réélu socialiste indépendant en 1924, puis on le retrouve ministre des Travaux publics sous Painlevé, de la Justice avec Briand, du Travail dans le second cabinet Tardieu (1930). Il est président du Conseil de janvier 1931 à février 1932. La crise économique gagne la France. De nouveau ministre du Travail avec Tardieu et des Colonies sous Doumergue, il succède à Barthou au ministère des Affaires étrangères et redevient président du Conseil en 1935.
      Face à Hitler, il veut assurer à la France l’alliance de l’Italie (janv. 1935) et celle de l’URSS (mai 1935). Staline décrète alors le ralliement des communistes français à la politique de défense nationale. Laval a peut-être donné à Mussolini l’assurance de ne pas l’inquiéter dans l’affaire d’Éthiopie. Mais celle-ci fera tomber Laval en janvier 1936, alors qu’il s’était maintenu au pouvoir en dépit de sa politique monétaire de déflation et d’économies budgétaires, facteur de mécontentement dans l’opinion et surtout chez les fonctionnaires. Se prononçant contre la déclaration de guerre à l’Allemagne, il revient au premier plan après l’armistice.
      Le 23 juin 1940, ministre d’État, il fait intervenir le vote des pleins pouvoirs au maréchal Pétain, vote qui a lieu le 10 Jul à Vichy. Celui-ci le remerciera en le nommant à la Vice-Présidence du Conseil. L’année suivante il sera même premier ministre. En 1942, il cumule tous les ministères importants et devient le véritable chef de l’état, au-dela même du vieux Maréchal Pétain qu’il étouffe. Persuadé de la victoire de l’Allemagne, il provoque la rencontre de Montoire entre Pétain et Hitler, d’où sortira la politique de collaboration (24 oct. 1940). Le 13 décembre, renvoyé par le maréchal, il reviendra au pouvoir le 17 avril 1942. Appelant qu’il n’a pas eu de responsabilité dans l’armistice, il obtient du maréchal la mission de changer les institutions et de gérer les relations avec l’occupant.
      Mais le maréchal et Laval s’entendent mal. Laval, en cumulant la direction du gouvernement, les Affaires étrangères, l’Information et l’Intérieur, est cette fois le véritable chef de l’État. Persuadé des difficultés de la collaboration, Laval s’engage dans une longue série de marchandages pour limiter les exigences de l’occupant. C’est la “relève” puis le Service du travail obligatoire. Mais, en même temps, son gouvernement prend des mesures de répression contre les juifs et contre les résistants. Les extrémistes de la collaboration attaquent aussi Laval. À Vichy même, son passé de "politicien", son style, ses intrigues lui attirent peu de sympathies Il est impopulaire auprès des Français. Laval n’est pas l’inventeur de la révolution nationale, mais il s’en sert à l’occasion. Dans l’histoire, le nom de Laval est lié à la politique de collaboration et à ses plus tragiques modalités. Les Alliés étant parvenus aux portes de Paris, Laval tente une ultime manœuvre politique en essayant d’obtenir d’Herriot, jusque-là en résidence surveillée, la réunion du Parlement. Les Allemands l’entraînent vers Belfort et Sigmaringen. Il s’y considère comme prisonnier.
      En mai 1945, il gagne l’Espagne par avion, mais est remis aux autorités françaises le 01 Aug. Son procès porte à leur comble les passions politiques et partisanes. La retenue qui s’était manifestée à l’égard de Pétain est balayée par la haine venue de toutes les tendances de l’opinion. Sa personnalité vénale, sa collaboration claire et nette, plus que zélée avec l’autorité allemande, son action vigoureuse contre les Juifs et surtout les Résistants français, en ont fait l’homme à haïr. Condamné à mort le 09 octobre, Laval s’empoisonne dans sa cellule; il est découvert agonisant, soigné, et porté en civière devant le peloton d’exécution le 15 octobre 1945.
Hitler before tour Effeil1940 Hitler sightsees in conquered Paris       ^top^
     At 06:00 Adolf Hitler poses for photographers in front of the famous Opera, behaving like any ordinary sightseer, just one day after the French capitulation. For Hitler, who had flown in from Belgium, the visit--his first and last--was a dream come true. His yearning to see Paris had begun when, as an art student, he had pored over pictures of the city's historic sites. Now, Paris lay under his victorious hand, all his own to savor as few men had been privileged to do.
      Oddly, Hitler, with his aides, an armed escort and two artist favorites, architect Albert Speer and sculptor Arno Breker, chose to pack his dream into three pell-mell hours. From the Opera, the motorcade went on to the Madeleine, one of the city's numerous memorials to the Napoleonic era, then drove around the Arc de Triomphe and stopped near the Eiffel Tower, where Hitler paused for a travel album snapshot with his artist companions. At Napoleon's Tomb, in the Invalides, the Führer stared at the red porphyry sarcophagus of Europe's last great conqueror, and murmured, "This is the finest moment of my life." As a tribute to the French emperor, Hitler ordered that the remains of Napoléon's son be moved from Vienna to lie beside his father.
     Hitler ordered the destruction of two World War I monuments.
1939 France turns over sanjak (subprovince) of Alexandretta (the Hatay) to Turkey.
1938 Civil Aeronautics Authority (US) established
1931 Aviators Wiley Post and Harold Gatty took off from New York on the first round-the-world flight in a single-engine plane.
1925 Landslides create 3-mile long "Slide Lake" (Gros Ventre Wyoming)
1914 Zacatecas falls to Pancho Villa,       ^top^
      Doroteo Arango “Pancho Villa” had been attacking Zacatecas since 11 June, fighting would go on into the next day. An event celebrated in the corrido:
La Toma de Zacatecas

Era el veintitrés de junio,
hablo con los más presentes,
fue tomado Zacatecas
por las tropas de insurgentes.

Ya tenían algunos días
que se estaban agarrando
cuando llegó Pancho Villa
a ver qué estaba pasando.

Las órdenes que dio Villa
a todos en formación,
para empezar el combate
al disparo de un cañón.

Al disparo de un cañón,
como lo tenían de acuerdo,
empezó duro el combate
lado derecho e izquierdo.

Les tocó atacar La Bufa
a Villa, Urbina y Natera,
porque allí tenía que verse
lo bueno de su bandera.

Las calles de Zacatecas
de muertos entapizadas,
lo mismo estaban los cerros
por el fuego de granada.

¡Ay, hermoso Zacatecas,
mira cómo te han dejado!
la causa fue el viejo Huerta
y tanto rico allegado.

Ahora sí, borracho Huerta,
harás las patas más chuecas
al saber que Pancho Villa
ha tomado a Zacatecas.

Ya con ésta ahí me despido,
con la flor de una violeta,
por la División del Norte
fue tomado Zacatecas.

1893, Governor John Peter Altgeld of Illinois pardons three innocent Haymarket “anarchists”. Born in Germany 18471230, Altgeld was brought to the US as an infant. Democrat governor of Illinois (1893-97). In 1895, during the Pullman strike by the American Railway Union, again braving public opinion, Altgeld protested the violation of states' rights as federal troops broke the strike. Altgeld was also an advocate of prison reform. His following his conscience ended his political career. He died in 1902.
1865 General Stand Watie surrenders last sizeable Confederate army in the Indian Territory (today's Oklahoma) at Fort Towson, Doaksville
1864 Skirmish at Nottoway Court House, Virginia on Wilson's Raid
1864 Skirmish at Jones' Bridge, Virginia
1863 Tullahoma Campaign begins in Middle Tennessee
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Lee confers with his generals before the Seven Days' Battles       ^top^
      Confederate General Robert E. Lee meets with his corps commanders to plot an attack on General George McClellan's Army of the Potomac. Launched on 26 June, the attack would break the stalemate of the Peninsular campaign and trigger the Seven Days' Battles. McClellan had spent two months shipping his army down the Chesapeake to the James Peninsula for a run at the Confederate capital. Despite having a larger number of troops, McClellan moved slowly and timidly, and his advance stalled on 01 June, some 15 km from Richmond. For the next three weeks, McClellan's and Lee's armies faced off, but little fighting occurred. Now Lee sought to seize the initiative. He summoned his generals for a council on 23 June. Included in the meeting was General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, fresh off his highly successful Shenandoah Valley campaign. Jackson was traveling ahead of his army, which was still marching back from western Virginia. Lee announced to his commanders that the time had come to attack the Yankee invaders. Lee planned an assault on the Union right flank, which was separated from the rest of the Yankee army by the Chickahominy River. Plans were made for the Battle of Mechanicsville on 26 June, and Jackson rode back to his troops. The stage was set for the Seven Days' Battles.
1858 Edgardo Mortara, 6, is “kidnapped” by order of the Pope..      ^top^
      The papal police enter the home of Shlomo Mortara, a Jewish merchant living in Bologna, Papal States, and remove the Mortara's little Edgardo. Some years earlier, a servant girl in the Mortara household, fearing that Edgardo was on the verge of death, had baptized him. This made him a Catholic, who could not be brought up properly by Jews, be they his parents. So Pope Pius IX, disregarding an international outcry, adopts the boy and has him raised a Catholic. Edgardo became quite attached to Pius IX and became a Catholic priest, who labored for the conversion of Jews. He died an the abbey in Bouhay, Belgium, in March 1940.
      The scandal was stirred up again in 2000, when Pope John Paul II decided to beatify Pius IX on 03 September. This prompted some to say that Pius IX would be the patron saint of kidnappers (presumably if canonization were to follow in due course). There was considerable opposition to the beatification of Pius IX, not only for this reason, but for a variety of others, including his discriminatory treatment of Jews, his opposition to the unification of Italy, his Syllabus of Errors, and his promotion of the doctrine of papal infallibility.
     The case was the subject of David Kertzer's 1997 book The Kidnapping of Edgardo Mortara: The Extraordinary Story of How a Jewish Child, Made a Prisoner of the Vatican in 1858, Ended the Rule of the Popes in Italy.
1848 Bloody insurrection of workers in Paris
1845 Texas votes for Annexation to US.       ^top^
      After ten years as an independent republic, the Congress of the Republic of Texas votes to accept annexation by the United States. Texas had already voted for annexation once before, in 1836; however, the likelihood of Texas joining the Union as a slave state delayed any formal action by the US Congress for over a decade.
      After gaining independence from Spain in the 1820s, Mexico welcomed foreign settlers to sparsely populated Texas, and a large group of Americans led by Stephen F. Austin settled along the Brazos River. The Americans soon outnumbered the resident Mexicans, and by the 1830s attempts by the Mexican government to regulate these semi-autonomous American communities led to rebellion.
      In March of 1836, in the midst of armed conflict with the Mexican government, Texas declared its independence from Mexico. The Texas volunteers initially suffered defeat against the forces of Santa Anna-- the Alamo fell (06 March 1836) and Sam Houston's troops were forced into an eastward retreat. However, in late April, Houston's troops surprised a Mexican force at San Jacinto (21 April 1836) and Santa Anna was captured, bringing an end to Mexico's effort to subdue Texas. In exchange for his freedom, Santa Anna recognized Texas' independence, although the treaty was later abrogated and tensions built up along the Texas-Mexico border.
      The citizens of the so-called "Lone Star Republic" elected Sam Houston as president, but also endorsed the entrance of Texas into the Union. However, Congress feared that Texas would shift the balance of power between the North and South, and the Republic of Texas remained independent for nine years. Finally, in 1844, Secretary of State John C. Calhoun orchestrated a compromise in which Texas would join the United States as a slave territory. Four months after the approval of formal annexation of Texas by the US Congress, Texas' congress accepted US statehood. On 29 December 1845, Texas entered the United States as a slave state, broadening the irrepressible differences in the US over the issue of slavery and igniting the Mexican-American War (April 1846-February 1848).
1810 One more company for fur tycoon       ^top^
      German-born merchant John Jacob Astor, 46, strengthens his grip on America's burgeoning fur industry by establishing the Pacific Fur Company (Astoria, Oregon). The founding of Pacific Fur came but two years after Astor incorporated the American Fur Company. A hard-driving businessman, Astor had already established a toe-hold in the industry in the late 1700s; with the founding of American Fur, he became one of the kings of the fur trade. Indeed, American Fur quickly established choke holds over the Missouri River valley, as well as the Rocky Mountains and Great Lakes regions.
      But, Astor was a prototypical American entrepreneur and thus looked to expand his domain. Pacific Fur was born of these cutthroat commercial instincts, most notably Astor's desire to conquer the Pacific Northwest. Moreover, in 1811, Astor used Pacific Fur to found the village-cum-trading post of Astoria, which was designed to facilitate the fur maven's exchanges with China. However, Astor's hopes for Astoria were soon dashed: the village, nestled near the Columbia River, was a casualty of the War of 1812. The loss hardly deterred Astor, who continued to rule the fur trade until 1834, when he left the business to attend to his fortune.
1789 Par la volonté du Peuple! C’est au cours d’une des sessions des Etats Généraux, que Mirabeau (Gabriel Honoré Riquetti, comte de Mirabeau) lancera au "Maître de Cérémonies du Roi" venu pour faire évacuer la salle cette superbe réplique : "Allez dire à votre maître que nous sommes ici par la volonté du peuple et que nous n’en sortirons que par la force des baïonnettes" !
1784 first US balloon flight (13 year old Edward Warren)
1760 Battle of Landshut, Silesia
1743 Bataille de Bettingen. C'est la guerre de Succession d'Autriche. Les Anglais débarquent à Hanovre. George III, roi d'Angleterre, défait Adrien Maurice, comte d'Ayen, et troisième duc de Noailles.
1683 William Penn signs friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape indians in Pennsylvania; only treaty "not sworn to, nor broken" . Voltaire once remarked that it was the only treaty never sworn to, and never broken.
1611 Hudson set adrift by mutineers       ^top^
      After spending a winter trapped in present-day Hudson Bay by ice, the starving crew of the Discovery mutinies against its captain, English navigator Henry Hudson, 46, and set him, his teenage son, and seven supporters adrift in a small, open boat. They were never seen again.
      Two years earlier, in 1609, after repeatedly failing in his efforts to find a northeast ocean passage to Asia, Hudson sailed to the Americas to find a northwest passage. Exploring the North American coast, he entered the present-day Chesapeake, Delaware, and New York bays, and then became the first European to ascend what is now called the Hudson River. His voyage, which was financed by the Dutch, was the basis of Holland’s later claims to the region.
      His fourth expedition, financed by adventurers from his own country, set out from London, England, on 17 April 1610. Sailing back across the Atlantic, Hudson resumed his efforts to find the northwest passage. Between Greenland and Labrador he entered present-day Hudson Strait and by it reached Hudson Bay. After three months of exploration, the Discovery was caught too far from open sea when winter set in, and in November Hudson’s men were forced to haul it ashore and set up a winter camp. Lacking food or supplies, the expedition greatly suffered in the extreme cold.
      Many of the crew held Hudson responsible for their misfortune, and on 23 June 1611, with the coming of summer, they mutinied against him. The Discovery later returned to England, and its crew was arrested and convicted for the mutiny. Although Henry Hudson was never seen again, his discoveries gave England its claim to the rich Hudson Bay region.
1173 Révoltés contre leur père, Henry II d'Angleterre, Henri le Jeune, Richard, et Geoffroy, aidés moralement par leur mère Eléanore d'Aquitaine, et aussi soutenus par Louis VII, roi de France, mettent le siège devant Verneuil.
0079 Titus Flavius Vespasianus empereur       ^top^
      Son père, Vespasien, avait succédé à Néron après que plusieurs chefs militaires se furent âprement disputé le trône. Son règne presque pacifique (69 - 79) vit les débuts de l'édification du Colisée, l'un des plus grandioses monuments de la Rome antique, ainsi que la conquête de l'Angleterre. Le 23 Juin 79, accède à la pourpre impériale de Titus, le fils de Vespasien, le vainqueur des Juifs, commandant en chef de l’Armée Romaine,. Titus Flavius Vespasianus, 39 ans. L’empereur que l’on surnomma "les délices du genre humain" régna à peine plus de deux ans. Mais il a laissé une empreinte positive.
      Il avait d’abord secondé son père pendant la guerre contre les Juifs (prise de Jérusalem en 70) puis, quand Vespasien partit pour Rome prendre le pouvoir, il avait commandé en chef l’armée romaine, ce qui lui valut les honneurs d’un triomphe qui a été sculpté sur l’arc dit de Titus, au Forum romain. On connaît ses amours avec Bérénice (Racine); ils sont secondaires.
      En tant que souverain, il se conduisit comme un vrai monarque : il écarta Domitien, vénéra des divinités orientales qui renforçaient le culte impérial (Isis), et il agit en tout avec une prodigalité et un luxe digne des souverains-dieux d'Orient. Mais, pour montrer son sens de la mesure et apaiser le Sénat, il fit poursuivre les délateurs et refusa les procès contre les crimes de lèse-majesté, donc contre les Chrétiens.
      Son règne fut marqué par des catastrophes : en 79, une éruption du Vésuve détruisit Pompéi, Herculanum, Stabies, et Torre Annunziata. En 80, Rome dut supporter l’incendie et la peste. Dans tous les cas, l’empereur se montra secourable ; de plus, il fit entreprendre de nombreux travaux publics : à Rome, il laissa des thermes, un arc de triomphe (l’Arc de Titus, encore debout à Rome), et il fit poursuivre les travaux du Colisée ; dans les provinces, de nombreuses bornes milliaires attestent son souci du réseau routier, notamment dans la région de Tongres (près de Liège, en Limbourg). Il mourut le 13 septembre 81 ; les raisons de ce décès restent encore mystérieuses.
Ah un truc mnémotechnique pour retenir la liste des empereurs romains du premier siècle ap. J.C. Retenez la " formule magique " :
Cesautica, Claunégalo, Vivestido. Soit en décomposant les mots en syllabes :
César, Auguste, Tibère, Caligula, Claude, Néron, Galba, Otton, Vitellius, Vespasien, Titus et Domitien.
click to ZOOM INDeaths which occurred on a June 23:
2002 Ayad Taisir Samoudi, Palestinian policeman, by Israeli gunfire in Jenin, which also injures four other Palestinian policemen, for two of whom the Israelis then add arrest (and possibly insult) to injury, early in the day.
2002 Fadzil Noor, 65 [< 24 May 2001 photo], in Kuala Lumpur, unconscious since heart bypass surgery on 10 June 2002. two weeks ago, hospital officials said. He was the relatively moderate president of the fundamentalist Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, opposed to Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad and his United Malays National Organization party. — MORE
2000 Enrico Cuccia, 92. in Milan, Italian banker. As the cofounder (1946), managing director (1946–82), and honorary chairman (after he was forced to retire in 1982) of Mediobanca SpA, Italy's first—and for a time only—merchant bank, he orchestrated many of Italy's biggest business deals and was instrumental in the transformation of Italy's depressed industrial sector after World War II. He was born on 24 November 1907 in Rome. His corpse was kidnapped from his grave, for ransom, in March 2001 and recovered on 2 April 2001, no ransom paid.
1997 Betty Shabazz, 61, of burns on 90% of her body received on 01 June in fire set by her grandson.       ^top^
     She was the widow of Malcolm X. Malcolm X was assassinated on 21 February 1965, at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem. Just a week before his death, the couple's New York City home was destroyed by a firebomb. Malcolm X, also known as El Hagg Malik El-Shabazz, was killed a year after breaking away from the Nation of Islam and forming his own Muslim faction. Three gunmen, two of them members of the Nation of Islam, were sentenced to life in prison for the Malcolm X shooting. Two of the gunmen were released after serving 20 years in prison.
     Their daughter, Qubilah Bahiyah Shabazz, 32, had been arrested on 12 January 1995 for conspiring to kill Louis Farrakhan. Shabazz believed that Farrakhan was responsible for the assassination of her father in 1964, and sought to exact revenge through a hired killer. Subsequently, Shabazz admitted her "responsibility," but not her guilt of the charges, and the government accepted a plea bargain that required her to undergo psychiatric and drug treatment.
Betty Shabazz      Michael Fitzpatrick, a high-school classmate of Shabazz, claimed that she called him and asked him to kill Farrakhan. Fitzpatrick said she told him that she wanted to avenge her father's death, and feared for the life of her mother Betty Shabazz who was outspoken in her belief that Farrakhan was behind the 1964 shooting. Although Farrakhan was allied with the Nation of Islam leaders who planned Malcolm X's murder, he most likely was not directly involved in the plot. Unfortunately for Qubilah, Fitzpatrick was already an FBI informant and promptly passed on the information. He also began recording his conversations with Shabazz. She escaped the most serious charges because the tapes showed some wavering and ambivalence on her part in actually going through with the murder.
     Some claim that the whole affair was an unbelievable FBI plot. A much-publicized reconciliation between Farrakhan and the Shabazz family occurred after the charges were made against Qubilah.
     There had been a 30-year rift between Betty Shabazz and Farrakhan, whom Betty Shabazz believed played a role in her husband's death. Malcolm X was assassinated on 21 February 1965, at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem. Just a week before his death, the couple's New York City home was destroyed by a firebomb. Malcolm X, also known as El Hagg Malik El-Shabazz, was killed a year after breaking away from the Nation of Islam and forming his own Muslim faction. Three gunmen, two of them members of the Nation of Islam, were sentenced to life in prison for the Malcolm X shooting. Two of the gunmen were released after serving 20 years in prison.
      In addition to her legal troubles, Qubilah Shabazz had an alcohol problem, so her 12-year-old son Malcolm had been sent to live with his grandmother Betty in Westchester County, New York. He set the house on fire with gasoline on 01 June 1997 in hopes of being reunited with his mother. The boy was convicted of arson and sentenced on 08 August 1997 to at least 18 months at a juvenile center, sentence to be reviewed yearly thereafter until he turns 18. By 03 August 1999, he had escaped three times and a judge extended his detention to 03 August 2000.
1996 Andreas Papandreou, 77, former Greek Prime Minister
1995 Dr. Jonas Salk, 80, in La Jolla, California. Born on 28 October 1914, de developed of the first polio vaccine (injected, using killed virus), of which the first major field test's success was announced on 12 April 1955. The Salk vaccine was eventually replaced by the orally administered live-virus vaccine of Dr. Albert Sabin.
1985 All 329 aboard an Air India Boeing 747 as it crashes into the Atlantic Ocean near Ireland, as result of a bomb explosion.
1980 Clyfford Still, US Abstract Expressionist Painter born in 1904. — LINKS19471949
1969 Plus de 20 millions de poissons dans le Rhin, empoisonnés       ^top^
      Un fût de 500 litres d’insecticide concentré, l’Endosulfan, tombe accidentellement dans le Rhin, près de Bingen, et pollue le fleuve sur plus de 600 Kms. Plus de 20 millions de poissons périront dans cette catastrophe écologique. Si, depuis lors, des mesures ont été prises au niveau international (Suisse, Allemagne, Hollande), les moyens mis en œuvre pour les faire respecter sont tellement faibles que cette grande voie navigable n’est guère recommandable, ni pour les bains, ni pour les activités nautiques ! ! !
1944 Arthur Segal, Romanian artist born on 13 June 1875.
1891 Wilhelm Weber, mathematician.
1858 Johnson, mathematician.
1852 Karl Pavlovich Briullov, Russian Neoclassical and Romantic painter specialized in Portraits, born in 1799. — Briulloff's portrait by Vasily Tropinin. — MORE ON BRIULLOV AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSSelf-Portrait (1833) — Self-Portrait (1848) — Self-portrait in a Boat with Baroness Ye. N. Meller-Zakomelskaya and a GirlAlexander BruloffSylvester ShchedrinAlexey Tolstoy as a YouthCount A. A. Perovsky (the writer “Anton Pogorelsky”) — Nestor KukolnicA. N. StrugovshchikovAlexander BriulloffThe Last Day of Pompeii _ detail 1 (group at left pelted by falling household objects and a rain of stones) _ detail 2 (couple with child and baby) _ detail 3 (child by dead mother) _ detail 4 (rider on rearing horse, behind Pliny and his mother) — Rider: portrait of Giovanina and Amacilia Pacini, the Foster Children of Countess Samoilova _ detail 1 (younger sister looking on) _ detail 2 (older sister riding) — Countess Samoilova and Her Ward Amacilia Pacini Leaving a Ball _ detail 1 (Amacilia) _ detail 2 (the countess) — NarcissusItalian MiddayGrand Duchess Elena PavlovnaPrince G. GagarinPrincess Z. VolkonskayaA. LvovArchitect K. A. TonJuditta PastaFanny Persiani-Tacinardi — Princess Ye. P. Saltykova
1848, 1500 hommes sont fusillés sans jugement, 25'000 sont arrêtés, la réponse du général Cavaignac à une insurrection ouvrière provoquée par la fermeture définitive des ateliers nationaux. Ce que l'on appelle " la peur sociale " vient de commencer.
1799 Jan-Anton Garemyn (or Gaeremyn), Flemish artist born on 15 April 1712.
1781 Pierre Louis Dumesnil the Younger, French painter born in 1698. — Interior with Card Players
1757, 23 British soldiers and many more Bengalis, as Robert Clive, 31, with an army of 3000, defeats nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-Dawlah, 28 (the one responsible for the " Black Hole of Calcutta" incident), and his army of 50'000 at the battle (or, more accurately, cannonade) of Plassey, and wins control of Bengal The nawab fled to Murshidabad but was captured and, on 03 July 1757, executed.
1677 Willem van Herp, Flemish artist born in 1614.
1612 Tacquet, mathematician.
Births which occurred on a June 23:
1948 Clarence Thomas (US Supreme Court Justice)
1938 The US Civil Aeronautics Authority is established.
1929 Michael Shaara, author of The Killer Angels, in Jersey City, New Jersey.       ^top^
      Shaara attended Rutgers and later did graduate work at Columbia and the University of Vermont before becoming a college professor at Florida State University. He also worked as a merchant seaman, paratrooper, and policeman. Shaara wrote four novels before he died of a heart attack in 1988. His second novel, The Killer Angels, is considered by some readers and historians to be the best novel ever written about the Civil War. Rich in carefully researched historic detail, the book recreated the Battle of Gettysburg and won the Pulitzer Prize in 1975.
      Shortly after Shaara finished the book in 1972, he was nearly killed in an automobile accident. He suffered brain damage that left him in a coma for five weeks and interfered with his hearing and speech. Troubled by lingering dyslexia and disorientation, Shaara wrote no more bestsellers before his death. However, his children later found and published his last manuscript, For the Love of the Game, about an aging baseball pitcher who pitches one last perfect game. This was adapted into a 1999 film starring Kevin Costner
1927 Robert Louis "Bob" Fosse, in Chicago. Over the course of a fifty-year career as a dancer and producer, Fosse would emerge as one of the finest choreographers to work in American musical film and theater.
1913 William P Rogers US secretary of state (1969-73)
1912 Alan Turing, mathematician.       ^top^
      Alan Turing laid the groundwork for the field of artificial intelligence. At age twenty-four, Turing suggested a theoretical calculating device that could carry out step-by-step mathematical operations based on a program. The "Turing Machine" became the theoretical model for work on digital computers in the 1940s. In his later work, he argued that computers would one day think like humans. He devised a test to measure this capacity, called the "Turing test." Turing died on 07 June 1954, at the age of forty-two. Turing's death, an apparent suicide, occurred during a humiliating medical "treatment" for homosexuality, which Turing chose instead of a jail sentence.
1910 Jean Marie Anouilh (playwright: Becket, Antigone, Thieves' Carnival)
1894 Dr. Alfred Kinsey (sexual behavior researcher: The Kinsey Report, The Sexual Behavior in the Human Male)
1894 Duke of Windsor [King Edward VIII of England] (briefly in 1936)
1876 Irvin S Cobb Ky, writer/humorist (Old Judge Priest) COBB ONLINE: Speaking of Operations--— Cobb's AnatomyA Plea for Old Cap Collier
1868 "Type-writer" patented by Christopher Latham Sholes
1860 US Secret Service created.
1856 Vincenzo Caprile, Italian artist who died in 1936
.1849 John Reinhard Weguelin, British painter of genre, classical, biblical and historical subjects, who died on 28 April 1927. — MORE ON WEGUELIN AT ART “4” JUNELesbiaPressing GrapesThe obsequies of an Egyptian catA Young Girl with FlamingoesBacchus TriumphantThe Labour of the Danaïdes
1846 The saxophone is patented by Antoine-Joseph Sax, Belgian-French maker of musical instruments. He was also called Adolphe Sax. He was born on 6 November 1814, in Dinant, Belgium, and died on 7 February 1894 in Paris.
1845 Émile Renouf, French artist who died on 04 May 1894.
1816 Henri Charles Antoine Baron, French artist who died on 13 September 1885.
1763 Marie-Josèphe-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie, Martinique, (future Joséphine) who would in 1779 become vicomtesse de Beauharnais and move to Paris. empress of France by a marriage from which she would obtain a separation in March 1785. Her husband was guillotined in June 1794. She married civilly Napoléon Bonaparte on 09 March 1796 and, he being emperor since May 1804, religiously on 01 December 1804, the eve of his coronation. Napoléon had the 1904 marriage annuled in 1810 on a technicality (probably pre-arranged) so that he could marry Marie-Louise, daughter of the emperor of Austria. He continued to pay for Joséphine lavish life style. She died on 29 May 1814.
1688 Jacob Laurenszoon van der Vinne, Dutch artist who died on 17 January 1737.
1675 Louis Silvestre, French artist who died on 11 April 1760.
Holidays Denmark : Midsummer Eve / Finland, Latvia, Scandinavia : Midsummer Eve/St John's Eve / Luxembourg : Official birthday of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg

Religious Observances RC, Ang : Vigil (eve) of St John the Baptist / RC :St Audrey (St Ethelreda), virgin / RC : St Joseph Cafassio, Italian priest

Thought for the day: “There is always someone worse off than yourself.”
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