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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 09
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• English Restoration... • “Have you no sense of decency?”... • 6~Day War: 5th day... • USSR invades Karelia... • UK leases Hong Kong... • Mormons head West... • Colonials burn British ship... • Battle of Brandy Station... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Dickens dies... • Sri Lanka Army shells civilians... • McNamara is born... • Home Sweet Home author is born... • US sailor dies victim of Israel... • St. Lawrence River discovered... • Georgia Charter... • Hope for An Loc... • Domino Theory challenged... • Tax withholding... • Antitrust charges against Intel... • Bertha von Suttner geboren... • Patricia Cornwall is born... • Donald Duck...
On a June 09:
2002 First round of the parliamentary elections in France. Some 8500 candidates compete for the 577-seat National Assembly. Less than 50 candidates get over 50% of the vote and are elected outright. Those who receive less than 12.5% of the vote are eliminated. The rest will enter the decisive second round on 16 June. President Jacques Chirac's moderate rightist coalition (UMP: Union pour une Majorité Présidentielle) gets results that foreshadow a parliamentary majority and the end of “cohabitation” with a Socialist prime minister.
2000 France becomes the 12th country to ratify the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (which has not been ratified nor even signed by the US)
2000 The US Justice Department released a report saying an 18-month investigation had found no credible evidence that conspirators aided or framed James Earl Ray in the 1968 assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.
1998 Antitrust charges filed against Intel       ^top^
by the Federal Trade Commission. The government alleged that the chipmaker squelched competition by retaliating against three companies that tried to enforce patents against Intel and its allies. When the companies refused to license their patented technology on Intel's terms, the chipmaker withheld important product information and threatened to cut off chip supplies. The FTC argued that such tactics were unfair because Intel was exploiting its "monopoly" power.
1997 British lease on New Territories in Hong Kong expires
1995 IBM consent decree ends
     A federal judge gives IBM permission to file a motion to end a 1956 consent decree. The decree, which followed an antitrust case, limited the ways in which the company could sell computers. The company argued that the computer industry had changed dramatically in the thirty-eight years since the decree was imposed. IBM argued that the terms of the agreement created higher computer prices for consumers.
1986 The Rogers Commission releases its report on the Challenger disaster, criticizing NASA and rocket-builder Morton Thiokol for management problems leading to the explosion that claimed the lives of seven astronauts.
1985 American Thomas Sutherland is kidnapped and held hostage in Lebanon
1981 Xerox introduces PC
      Xerox became the first office products company to enter the personal computer market when it introduced the Xerox 820 on this day in 1981. The machine, which retailed for $3,000, boasted two disk drives and a monitor displaying twenty-four lines of 80-character type. (However, the monitor could not display graphics.)
1978 Gutenberg Bible (1 of 21) sells for $2.4 million, London
1978 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) strikes down 148 year policy of excluding black men from priesthood
1972 14" of rain in 6 hrs burst Rapid City SD dam, drowns 200
1972 South Vietnamese soldiers reach An Loc       ^top^
      Part of a relief column composed mainly of South Vietnamese 21st Division troops finally arrives in the outskirts of An Loc. The division had been trying to reach the besieged city since April 9, when it had been moved from its normal station in the Mekong Delta and ordered to attack up Highway 13 from Lai Khe to open the route to An Loc. The South Vietnamese forces had been locked in a desperate battle with a North Vietnamese division that had been blocking the highway since the very beginning of the siege. As the 21st Division tried to open the road, the defenders inside An Loc fought off repeated attacks by two North Vietnamese divisions that had surrounded the city early in April. This was the southernmost thrust of the North Vietnamese invasion that had begun on March 30; the other main objectives were Quang Tri in the north and Kontum in the Central Highlands.
      Although the lead elements of the 21st Division reached the outskirts of the city on this day, they did not represent significant reinforcements for An Loc, having suffered tremendous casualties in their fight up the highway and the two-month siege was not lifted. It would not be lifted until large numbers of fresh reinforcements were flown in to a position south of the city from which they then successfully attacked the North Vietnamese forces that surrounded the city. By the end of the month, most of the Communist troops within the city had been eliminated, but the North Vietnamese forces still blocked Route 13 and continued to shell An Loc.
1970 Harry A Blackmun becomes a Supreme Court Justice
1969 The US Senate confirms Warren Burger as chief justice of the United States, succeeding Earl Warren.
1967 Fifth day of the Six-Day War       ^top^
      On 05 June 1967, responding to the Egyptian reoccupation of Gaza and the closure of the Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli shipping, Israel launched simultaneous military offensives against Egypt and Syria. Jordan subsequently entered the fray, but the Arab coalition was no match for Israel’s well-supplied and famously proficient armed forces.
      In six days, Israel occupied the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, the Golan Heights of Syria, and the West Bank and Arab sector of East Jerusalem, both previously under Jordanian rule.
      The so-called Six-Day War gave Israel control of territory three times its original size, and Jerusalem was unified under Jewish rule, despite a U.N. resolution calling for the preservation of the holy city’s Arab sector.
      Arab leaders, forced to accept a UN cease-fire, met at Khartoum in the Sudan in August to discuss the future of Israel in the Middle East. They decided upon a policy of no peace, no negotiations, and no recognition of Israel, and also made plans to zealously defend the rights of Palestinian Arabs in the territories occupied by Israel.
1965 Michel Fazy runs the mile in 3 minute 53.6 seconds
1964 CIA report challenges Domino Theory       ^top^
      In reply to a formal question submitted by President Lyndon B. Johnson — "Would the rest of Southeast Asia necessarily fall if Laos and South Vietnam came under North Vietnamese control?" — the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) submits a memo that effectively challenges the "domino theory" backbone of the Johnson administration policies. This theory contended that if South Vietnam fell to the communists, the rest of Southeast Asia would also fall "like dominoes," and the theory had been used to justify much of the Vietnam War effort. The CIA concluded that Cambodia was probably the only nation in the area that would immediately fall. "Furthermore," the report said, "a continuation of the spread of communism in the area would not be inexorable, and any spread which did occur would take time — time in which the total situation might change in any number of ways unfavorable to the communist cause." The CIA report concluded that if South Vietnam and Laos also fell, it "would be profoundly damaging to the US position in the Far East," but Pacific bases and allies such as the Philippines and Japan would still wield enough power to deter China and North Vietnam from any further aggression or expansion. President Johnson appears to have ignored the CIA analysis — he eventually committed over 500'000 US soldiers to the war in an effort to block the spread of communism to South Vietnam.
1957 Anthony Eden resigns as British PM
1954 "Have you no sense of decency, sir?"      ^top^
      In a dramatic confrontation, Joseph Welch, special counsel for the US Army, lashes out at Senator Joseph McCarthy during hearings on whether communism has infiltrated the US armed forces. Welch's verbal assault marked the end of McCarthy's power during the anticommunist hysteria of the Red Scare in America. Senator McCarthy (R-Wisconsin) experienced a meteoric rise to fame and power in the US Senate when he charged in February 1950 that "hundreds" of "known communists" were in the Department of State. In the years that followed, McCarthy became the acknowledged leader of the so-called Red Scare, a time when millions of Americans became convinced that communists had infiltrated every aspect of American life. Behind closed-door hearings, McCarthy bullied, lied, and smeared his way to power, destroying many careers and lives in the process. Prior to 1953, the Republican Party tolerated his antics because his attacks were directed against the Democratic administration of Harry S. Truman.
      When Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower entered the White House in 1953, however, McCarthy's recklessness and increasingly erratic behavior became unacceptable and the senator saw his clout slowly ebbing away. In a last-ditch effort to revitalize his anticommunist crusade, McCarthy made a crucial mistake. He charged in early 1954 that the US Army was "soft" on communism. As Chairman of the Senate Government Operations Committee, McCarthy opened hearings into the Army. Joseph N. Welch, a soft-spoken lawyer with an incisive wit and intelligence, represented the Army. During the course of weeks of hearings, Welch blunted every one of McCarthy's charges. The senator, in turn, became increasingly enraged, bellowing "point of order, point of order," screaming at witnesses, and declaring that one highly decorated general was a "disgrace" to his uniform.
      On 09 June 1954, McCarthy again became agitated at Welch's steady destruction of each of his arguments and witnesses. In response, McCarthy charged that Frederick G. Fisher, a young associate in Welch's law firm, had been a long-time member of an organization that was a "legal arm of the Communist Party." Welch was stunned. As he struggled to maintain his composure, he looked at McCarthy and declared, "Until this moment, Senator, I think I never really gauged your cruelty or your recklessness." It was then McCarthy's turn to be stunned into silence, as Welch asked, "Have you no sense of decency, sir, at long last?" The audience of citizens and newspaper and television reporters burst into wild applause. Just a week later, the hearings into the Army came to a close. McCarthy, exposed as a reckless bully, was officially condemned by the US Senate for contempt against his colleagues in December 1954. During the next two-and-a-half years McCarthy spiraled into alcoholism. Still in office, he died in 1957.
1944 The Red Army invades Karelian Isthmus in Finland (again!)       ^top^
      The USSR's troops penetrate into East Karelia, in Finland, as it fights to gain back control of territory that had already been ceded to it. According to the terms of the Treaty of Moscow of 1940, Finland was forced to surrender parts of its southeastern territory, including the Karelian Isthmus, to the Soviet Union, which was eager to create a buffer zone for Leningrad. To protect itself against further Russian encroachment, Finland allowed Germany to traverse its country in its push eastward into Russia, despite the fact that it did not have a formal alliance with the Axis power.
      Emboldened by the damage Germany was inflicting on Russia, Finland pursued the "War of Continuation" and won back large parts of the territory it had ceded to Moscow in the 1940 treaty. But as Germany suffered setback after setback, and the Allies continued bombing runs in the Balkans, using Russia as part of its "shuttle" strategy, Finland began to panic and made overtures to Stalin about signing an armistice.
      By 09 June, the Red Army was once again in the East Karelia, and Stalin was in no mood to negotiate, demanding at least a symbolic "surrender" of Finland entirely. Finland turned back to its "friend," Germany, which promised continued support. A change in Finnish government resulted in a change in perspective, and Finland finally signed an armistice that gave Stalin what he wanted: all the old territory from the 1940 treaty and a guarantee that German troops would evacuate Finnish soil. Finland agreed but the German army refused to leave. Terrible battles were waged between the two behemoths; finally, with the defeat of the Axis, Russia got what it wanted, not only in Finnish territory, but also in war reparations to the tune of $300 million. Finland would become known for its passivity in the face of the Soviet threat in the postwar era.
1943 Tax withholding       ^top^
      World War II prompted sweeping fiscal changes in the United States, as President Franklin Roosevelt and his fellow legislators geared the nation for the rigors of wartime production. Along with reallocating vast chunks of America's work force to the task of manufacturing military items, Roosevelt helped establish tight controls on wages, prices, and consumption. While most of these initiatives were brought to a halt shortly after the declaration of peace in 1945, at least one wartime fiscal policy — the Current Tax Payment Act — has had some enduring impact. Indeed, the tax legislation, which hit the law books on this day in 1943, paved the path for withholding on income taxes. In particular, the bill, popularly known as the "Pay As You Go Tax," allows to withhold federal income taxes from American taxpayers before they get paid their wages or salaries.
1940 Norway surrenders to Nazi Germany during WW II
1940 Chute de Rouen.
1934 Donald Duck's movie debut.       ^top^
      Donald Duck makes his first film appearance, in The Wise Little Hen, a short by Walt Disney. Donald, along with Mickey Mouse (who debuted in 1928), would become one of Disney's most beloved characters. Donald's popularity also led to other characters in the Duck family, including Daisy Duck, Uncle $crooge, and nephews Huey, Dewey, and Louey. Al Taliaferro would draw the comic strip.
      Donald's creator, Walt Disney, was born on a Missouri farm and showed an early interest in art. He sold his first sketches to neighbors when he was just seven, and he attended the Kansas City Art Institute at night during high school. At age 16, during World War I, Disney went overseas with the Red Cross and drove an ambulance decorated with cartoon characters.
      Back in Kansas City, Disney worked as an advertising cartoonist. He founded a company, Laugh-O-Gram, with his older brother, Roy, but the company went bankrupt, and the brothers left Kansas City for Hollywood with $40 and some art supplies in the early 1920s. Once in California, the brothers built a camera stand in their uncle's garage and started their company in the back of a Hollywood real estate office.
      Disney began making a series of animated short films called Alice in Cartoonland and developed a stable of animated characters. In 1928, Disney introduced Mickey Mouse in two silent films, followed by Steamboat Willie (1928), the first fully synchronized sound cartoon ever made. Walt Disney provided Mickey's squeaky voice himself. The company then launched the "Silly Symphony" series of sound cartoons. One installment in the series, The Three Little Pigs (1934), became the most popular cartoon up to that time. Meanwhile, the company developed increasingly sophisticated animation technology.
      The company released the first feature-length animated film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, in 1937. The film grossed $8 million, an incredible success during the Depression. During World War II, Disney devoted most of his company's resources to the production of training and propaganda films for the military. In 1965, he designed the Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow (EPCOT), which later inspired Disney's EPCOT Center in Orlando, Florida. He also helped establish the California Institute of the Arts in 1961.
      During Disney's four-decade career, he won more than 1000 honors and citations from around the world, including 48 Academy Awards and seven Emmys. Harvard, Yale, the University of Southern California, and UCLA all awarded him honorary degrees. He also won the Presidential Medal of Freedom, France's Legion of Honor and Officer d'Academie decorations, Thailand's Order of the Crown, Brazil's Order of the Southern Cross, Mexico's Order of the Aztec Eagle, and the Showman of the World Award from the National Association of Theatre Owners. In addition to his films, his legend lives on through Disneyland, Walt Disney World, and EPCOT Center. Walt Disney died in 1966.
1931 Goddard patents rocket-propelled aircraft design.
1902 first Automat restaurant opens (818 Chestnut St, Phila)
1902 Woodrow Wilson is unanimously elected president of Princeton University. In this position, Wilson would already exhibit both the idealistic integrity and the occasional lack of political acumen that would later mark his tenure as 28th president of the United States.
1898 Britain granted 99-year lease on Hong Kong       ^top^
      With the signing of the Second Convention of Peking by British and Chinese authorities, Britain was granted an additional ninety-nine years of rule over the island of Hong Kong. In 1839, at the outbreak of the First Opium War, Britain invaded and occupied Hong Kong, a sparsely inhabited island off the coast of southeast China. Two years later, China, defeated in its efforts to resist European interference in its economic and political affairs, formally ceded Hong Kong to the British with the signing of the Chuenpi Convention. Britain’s new colony flourished as an East-West trading center and as the commercial gateway and distribution center for southern China. In 1898, Britain was granted an additional ninety-nine years of rule over the prosperous colony.
      In September of 1984, after years of negotiations, the British and Chinese Communists signed a formal agreement that approved the 1997 turnover of the island in exchange for a Chinese pledge to preserve Hong Kong’s capitalist system. On July 1, 1997, Hong Kong reverted back to Chinese rule during ceremonies attended by Chinese and British officials, including Prince Charles of Wales, heir to the British throne. The chief executive under the new Hong Kong government, Tung Chee Hwa, formulated a policy based upon the concept of "one country, two systems," thus preserving Hong Kong’s role as a principal capitalist center in Asia.
1883 first commercial electric railway line in the US begins operation (Chicago El)
1869 Charles Elmer Hires sells his first root beer (Phila)
1863 Battle of Brandy Station, Virginia
1863 Battle of Brandy Station (Fleetwood Heights)       ^top^
      The largest cavalry battle of the war is fought at Brandy Station, Virginia. After the Confederate victory at Chancellorville in early May, Lee began to prepare for another invasion of the North by placing General J.E.B. Stuart's cavalry at Brandy Station, just east of Culpeper, to screen the rest of the Army of Northern Virginia as it started toward the Blue Ridge mountains. Stuart used this time at Brandy Station to stage a grand parade in order to boost morale and show off his dashing troopers to local residents.
      Unbeknownst to Stuart, his pompous display was observed by uninvited Union cavalry and infantry under the command of General Alfred Pleasonton, who lurked across the Rappahannock. On 09 June, Pleasonton struck the surprised Rebels in a two-pronged assault. After initially falling back, the Confederates eventually rallied, and the battle raged all day around St. James Church.
      The battle's key moment came when Union troops headed to seize Fleetwood Hill, an elevation from which the Yankees could shell the entire battlefield. Confederate Lieutenant John Carter struggled to mount a cannon on the hill and fired a single shot that stopped the Union troopers in their tracks. The Yankee officer leading the charge suspected the Confederates had a line of guns sitting just over the top of the hill, when in fact it was a single gun with barely enough powder for a single shot. Carter's heroic act saved the day for Stuart. The move bought time for the Confederates, and they held the hill.
      The battle continued until late afternoon, with many spectacular cavalry charges and saber fights in addition to hand-to-hand combat by dismounted cavalry. In the end, Stuart's forces held the field. Although it was technically a Rebel victory, the battle demonstrated how far the Union cavalry had come since the beginning of the war. Stuart's cavalry had been the master of their Union counterparts, but its invincibility was shattered on that muggy Virginia day.
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Battle of Port Republic, last of 5 battles in Jacksons Valley camp
1856 Mormon handcart pioneers depart for Salt Lake City       ^top^
      In an extraordinary demonstration of resolve and fortitude, nearly 500 Mormons leave Iowa City and head west for Salt Lake City carrying all their goods and supplies in two-wheeled handcarts. Of all the thousands of pioneer journeys to the West in the 19th century, few were more arduous than those undertaken by the so-called Handcart Companies from 1856 to 1860. The secular and religious leader of the Mormons, Brigham Young, had established Salt Lake City as the center of a new Utah sanctuary for the Latter-day Saints in 1847. In subsequent years, Young worked diligently to encourage and aid Mormons who made the difficult overland trek to the Great Salt Lake. In 1856, however, a series of poor harvests left the church with only a meager fund to help immigrants buy wagons and oxen. Young suggested a cheaper mode of travel: "Let them come on foot with handcarts or wheelbarrows; let them gird up their loins and walk through and nothing shall hinder or stay them." Amazingly, many Mormons followed his advice. On this day in 1856, a band of 497 Mormons left Iowa City, Iowa, and began the more than 1,000-mile trek to Salt Lake City. They carried all their goods in about 100 two-wheeled handcarts, most of which were heaped with the maximum load of 400 to 500 pounds. Each family usually had one cart, and the father and mother took turns pulling while any children old enough helped by pushing.
      The handcart immigrants soon ran into serious problems. The Mormon craftsmen who had constructed the handcarts back in Iowa City had chosen to use wooden axles instead of iron in order to save time and money. Sand and dirt quickly wore down the wood, and water and heat made the axles splinter and crack. As the level terrain of the prairies gave way to the more rugged country of the Plains, the sheer physical challenge of hauling a 220-kg cart began to take its toll. One British immigrant who was a skilled carpenter wrote of having to make three coffins in as many days. Some of the pilgrims gave up. Two girls in one handcart group left to marry a pair of miners they met along the way. The majority, however, struggled on and eventually reached the Salt Lake Valley. Over the course of the next four years, some 3000 Mormon converts made the overland journey by pushing and pulling heavy-laden handcarts. Better planning and the use of iron axles made the subsequent immigrations slightly easier than the first, and some actually made the journey more quickly than if they had used ox-drawn wagons. Still, once the church finances had recovered, Young's followers returned to using conventional wagons. The handcart treks remained nothing less than heroic. One Mormon girl later estimated that she and her family had each taken over a million steps to reach their goal, pushing and pulling a creaking wooden handcart the entire way.
1822 Charles Graham receives first patent for false teeth
1790 First book copyrighted under the constitution, Philadelphia Spelling Book.
1784 In the first step toward formal organization of the Roman Catholic Church in the US, Father John Carroll is appointed superior of the American missions by Pius VI.
1772 British vessel burned off of Rhode Island       ^top^
      In an incident that some regard as the first naval engagement of the American Revolution, colonists boarded the Gaspee, a British vessel that ran aground off the coast of Rhode Island, and set it aflame. The Gaspee had been pursuing the Hanna, an American smuggling ship, when it ran aground off of Namquit Point in Providence’s Narragansett Bay on 09 June. That evening, John Brown, an American merchant angered by high British taxes on his goods, rowed out to the Gaspee with a number of other colonists and seized control of the ship. After evacuating its crew, the Americans set the Gaspee on fire.
      When British officials attempted to prosecute the colonists involved in the so-called Gaspee Affair, they found no Americans willing to testify against their countrymen. This renewed the tension in British-American relations, and inspired the Boston Patriots to found the "Committee of Correspondence," a propaganda group that rallied Americans to their cause by publicizing all anti-British activity that occurred throughout the thirteen colonies.
1732 Georgia Charter granted to Oglethorpe       ^top^
      James Edward Oglethorpe, a British philanthropist and member of the House of Commons, was granted a royal charter by King George II to found a debtor colony south of South Carolina. First elected to the British Parliament in 1722, Oglethorpe became concerned with the plight of the debtor classes as chairman of a parliamentary committee investigating the deplorable penal conditions in Britain at the time. In 1732, he proposed the establishment of an asylum for debtors in the region south of the American colony of South Carolina. The British recognized the advantages of a buffer colony between South Carolina and Spanish Florida and Oglethorpe was made a twenty-year trustee of the colony of Georgia, named after King George. He carefully selected about one hundred debtors, and on January 11, 1733, the expedition sailed into Charleston harbor in the American colonies. After purchasing supplies, Oglethorpe led the settlers down the coast to Georgia, where they traveled inland along the Savannah River, establishing Georgia's first permanent European settlement — Savannah — on February 12.
      After forging friendly relations with the Yamacraw, a branch of the Creek confederacy who agreed to cede land to the colonists for settlement, he set about establishing a defense against the Spanish by building forts and instituting a system of military training. England declared war on Spain in 1739; in the next year, Oglethorpe led English and Native American forces in an invasion of Spanish Florida. He failed to capture St. Augustine, however, and in May of 1742, a large Spanish and Cuban force arrived to Florida. Oglethorpe retreated to Fort Frederica on St. Simons Island south of Savannah, and on July 7, the Spanish attacked.
      During the five-day Battle of Bloody Marsh, Oglethorpe’s outnumbered force successfully withstood the Spanish assault, and the Georgia governor carried out two brilliant wilderness ambushes that forced the Spanish to give up the siege on July 12. His victory effectively ended Spanish claims to the territory of Georgia, and thus proved essential in strengthening the southern border of the thirteen colonies. Georgia, rich in export potential, later grew into one of the most prosperous British colonies in America.
1549 In England, Parliament established a uniformity of religious services and the first Book of Common Prayer, as Anglicanism became the newly established national faith.
1534 Cartier discovers the St. Lawrence River       ^top^
      French navigator Jacques Cartier became the first European explorer to discover the St. Lawrence River in present-day Quebec, Canada. Cartier had been commissioned by King Francis I of France to explore the northern American lands in search of riches and the Northwest Passage to Asia. In 1534, he entered the Gulf of St. Lawrence by the Strait of Belle Isle, explored its barren north coast for a distance and then traveled down the west shore of Newfoundland to Cape Anguille.
      From there, he discovered Magdalen and Prince Edwards islands, explored Chaleur Bay, and claimed Quebec’s Gaspe Peninsula for France. He next discovered the inlet of the St. Lawrence River, sailed north to Anticosti Island, and then returned to Europe. Previously thought to be a barren and inhospitable region, Cartier’s discoveries of the warm and fertile lands around the Gulf of St. Lawrence inspired Francis I to dispatch him on a second expedition. On this voyage, he ascended the St. Lawrence to the site of present-day Quebec City and, leaving some of his men to prepare winter quarters, continued to the native village of Hochelaga, the site of the modern-day city of Montreal. On his return to France he explored Cabot Strait along the southern coast of Newfoundland. Cartier led a final expedition to the region in 1541, as part of an unsuccessful colonization effort. In the seventeenth century, his extensive geographical discoveries formed the basis of France’s claims to the rich St. Lawrence Valley.
1660 (29 May Julian) The English Restoration       ^top^
      Under invitation by leaders of the English Commonwealth, Charles II, the exiled king of England, enters London in triumph on his 30th birthday, to assume the throne and end eleven years of military rule. Four days earlier he had landed at Dover.
      Prince of Wales at the time of the English Civil War, Charles fled to France after Oliver Cromwell’s Parliamentarians defeated King Charles I’s Royalists in 1646. In 1649, Charles vainly attempted to save his father’s life by presenting Parliament a signed blank sheet of paper, thereby granting whatever terms were required. However, Oliver Cromwell was determined to execute Charles I, and on 10 February (30 January Julian) 1649, the king was beheaded in London.
      After his father's death, Charles was proclaimed king of Scotland and parts of Ireland and England, and traveled to Scotland to raise an army. In 1651, he invaded England but was defeated by Cromwell at the Battle of Worcester. Charles escaped to France, and later lived in exile in Germany and then in the Spanish Netherlands.
      After Cromwell’s death in 1658, the English republican experiment faltered. Cromwell’s son Richard proved an ineffectual leader and the public resented the strict Puritanism of England’s military rulers.
      In 1660, in what became known as the English Restoration, General George Monck met with Charles and arranged to restore him in exchange for a promise of amnesty and religious toleration for his former enemies. Charles issued on 15 April (04 April Julian) 1660 his Declaration of Breda, expressing his personal desire for a general amnesty, liberty of conscience, an equitable settlement of land disputes, and full payment of arrears to the army. The actual terms were to be left to a free parliament, and on this provisional basis Charles was proclaimed king in May 1660. Landing at Dover on 05 June (25 May Julian), he reached a rejoicing London on his 30th birthday.
      In the first year of the Restoration, Oliver Cromwell was posthumously convicted of treason and his body disinterred from its tomb in Westminster Abbey and hanged from the gallows at Tyburn.
      Carlos II de Inglaterra es proclamado rey, tras la muerte de Cromwell.
1456 23rd recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet
Deaths which occurred on a June 09:
2001 Nessra Malaha, 65, Salimia Malaha, 65, and her niece Hikmet Malaha, 25, by shrapnel from Israeli tank shells. The three women were Bedouin living in a camp near the Jewish enclave settlement Netzarim.
2000 Sabaratnam Vijitha, 2, Madduvil South       ^top^
Sivapirakasam Sasthiri of Nunavil South
Somasunderam kurukal Gobalakumar,20, of Madduvil North
Sangarapillai Salini, 15, of Madduvil North
Thambu Sabaratnam, 45, of Madduvil South
Thambu Manonmani, 50, of Madduvil South
T.Sivasothi, 46, Principal, Santhira Mouliga School,
Varithamby Sivapakiyam
, 70, of Kalvayal

civilians killed in shelling by the Sri Lanka Army in the Thenmaradchi area. The same day 25 Sri Lanka Army soldiers, including a senior officer, are killed at Sarasalai in the Jaffna peninsula in an attack on positions of the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam).
2000 Jacob Lawrence, 82, in Seattle, painter.
1994 Tinbergen, mathematician
1972 John Paul Vann, senior US advisor in Vietnam's Central Highlands, in a helicopter crash, probably shot down by North Vietnamese. Vann had successfully directed the battle against the North Vietnamese invaders at Kontum.
1969 Harold Davenport, mathematician
1967 Gary Ray Blanchard, 20.       ^top^
      Crew member of US spy ship attacked by Israelis the previous day. G
rievously wounded, he dies on the operating table at 03:15
32 others died earlier.
     On 670608, the fourth day of the Six-Day War, the Israeli high command had received reports that Israeli troops in El Arish were being fired upon from the sea, presumably by an Egyptian vessel as they had a day before. The United States had announced that it had no Naval forces within hundreds of miles of the battle front on the floor of the United Nations a few days earlier; however, the USS Liberty, an American intelligence ship assigned to monitor the fighting, arrived in the area, 22 km off the Sinai coast, as result of a series of United States communication failures, whereby messages directing the ship not to approach within 160 km were not received by the Liberty. The Israelis mistakenly thought this was the ship doing the shelling and war planes and torpedo boats attacked, killing 33 members of the Liberty's crew and wounding 172. This according to the official version.
      However the survivors and books such as Assault on the Liberty and "The USS Liberty: Dissenting History vs. Official History" tell a different story, according to which it was a deliberate attack. Admiral Thomas H. Moorer wrote on June 8, 1997:
I am confident that Israel knew the Liberty could intercept radio messages from all parties and potential parties to the ongoing war, then in its fourth day, and that Israel was preparing to seize the Golan Heights from Syria despite President Johnson's known opposition to such a move..... And I believe Moshe Dayan concluded that he could prevent Washington from becoming aware of what Israel was up to by destroying the primary source of acquiring that information - the USS Liberty.
     Another alleged Israeli motivation is that they wanted to hide their (alleged) war crime of shooting some 1000 Egyptian prisoners, mentioned in The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs:
According to eyewitness accounts by Israeli officers and journalists, the Israeli Army ... executed as many as 1000 Arab prisoners during the 1967 war. Historian Gabby Bron wrote in the Yediot Ahronot in Israel that he witnessed Israeli troops executing Egyptian prisoners on the morning of June 8, 1967, in the Sinai town of El Arish.
1963 Jacques Villon = Gaston Duchamp, French Cubist painter born on 31 July 1875. — MORE ON ZAENREDAM AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSGirl in a hat and veilL'EnvoléeCoursierLes Yeux FutilesLes LampesDuo GalantAbstractionTwo Women on a Terrace by the Sea Autre temps: 1830Jacques
1953 About 100 persons, by tornado, Worcester, Massachusetts. It destroys Assumption College.
1945 Antonin Prochaska, Czech artist born on 05 June 1882.
1911 Carry Nation
     Born Carry Amelia Moore on 25 November 1846, she was social reformer, hatchet lady scourge of barkeepers and drinkers. “Nation” is from her 1877 marriage (her 2nd) to her second husband, David Nation, who divorced her in 1901 on grounds of desertion. In 1867 she married and abandoned after a few months because of his alcoholism Dr. Charles Gloyd.
1901 Edward Moran, US painter born on 19 August 1829. — LINKS
1870 Charles Dickens       ^top^
      Dickens was born in 1812 and attended school in Portsmouth. His father, a clerk in the navy pay office, was thrown in debtors' prison in 1824, and 12-year-old Charles was sent to work in a factory. The miserable treatment of children and the institution of the debtors' jail became topics of several Dickens novels. In his late teens, Dickens became a reporter and started publishing humorous short stories when he was 21.
      In 1836, Dickens married Catherine Hogarth, with whom he would have nine children.
      On 31 March 1836, the first monthly installment of what would become The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, the first novel of 24-year-old Charles Dickens, is published under the pseudonym Boz as Sketches by Boz. The short sketches were originally commissioned as captions for humorous drawings by caricaturist Robert Seymour, but Dickens' whimsical stories about the kindly Samuel Pickwick and his fellow club members soon became popular in their own right. Only 400 copies were printed of the first installment, but by the 15th episode, 40'000 copies were printed. When the stories were published in book form in 1837, Dickens quickly became the most popular author of the day.
      In 1838, Dickens published Oliver Twist, followed by Nicholas Nickleby (1839). In 1841, Dickens published two more novels, then spent five months in the US, where he was hailed as a literary hero.
      Dickens churned out major novels every year or two, usually serialized in his own circular. Among his most important works are David Copperfield (1850), Great Expectations (1861), and A Tale of Two Cities (1859). Beginning in 1850, he published his own weekly circular of fiction, poetry, and essays called Household Words. In 1858, Dickens separated from his wife and began a long affair with a young actress named Ellen Ternan. In the late 1850s, he began a series of public readings, which became immensely popular. He dies, in Godshill, England,.with his last novel, The Mystery of Edwin Drood, still unfinished.
      Charles Dickens, novelista inglés.
  • American Notes for General Circulation: 1 (1842)
  • American Notes for General Circulation: 2 (1842)
  • American Notes for General Circulation (1874)
  • Barnaby Rudge (PDF)
  • Barnaby Rudge
  • Barnaby Rudge (zipped PDF)
  • A Child's History of England
  • A Christmas Carol
  • A Christmas Carol (PDF)
  • A Christmas Carol (zipped PDF)
  • A Christmas Carol: The Reading Version
  • David Copperfield
  • David Copperfield (zipped PDF)
  • Dombey and Son (PDF)
  • Great Expectations
  • Great Expectations (PDF)
  • Great Expectations (zipped PDF)
  • The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain
  • The Lazy Tour of Two Idle Apprentices
  • Letters of Charles Dickens to Wilkie Collins
  • The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit (PDF)
  • The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit (zipped PDF)
  • The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby
  • The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby (zipped PDF)
  • The Old Curiosity Shop
  • The Old Curiosity Shop
  • The Old Curiosity Shop (zipped PDF)
  • The Perils of Certain English Prisoners
  • Bleak House
  • Bleak House
  • Bleak House (zipped PDF)
  • Little Dorrit
  • Little Dorrit (PDF)
  • Little Dorrit (zipped PDF)
  • Hard Times
  • Hard Times
  • Hard Times (zipped PDF)
  • The Chimes
  • The Chimes
  • The Battle of Life
  • The Holly Tree
  • Hunted Down
  • The Lamplighter
  • The Cricket on the Hearth
  • Doctor Marigold
  • The Life of Our Lord
  • Mugby Junction
  • A Message from the Sea
  • Mrs. Lirriper's Legacy
  • Mrs. Lirriper's Lodgings
  • To Be Read at Dusk
  • Tom Tiddler's Ground
  • Pictures from Italy
  • Reprinted Pieces
  • Sketches by Boz
  • Somebody's Luggage
  • Mudfog and Other Sketches
  • Master Humphrey's Clock
  • The Mystery of Edwin Drood
  • The Mystery of Edwin Drood
  • Oliver Twist
  • Oliver Twist (PDF)
  • Oliver Twist (zipped PDF)
  • Our Mutual Friend
  • Our Mutual Friend (PDF)
  • The Pickwick Papers
  • The Pickwick Papers
  • The Pickwick Papers (zipped PDF)
  • The Seven Poor Travellers
  • Sketches of Young Couples
  • Sketches of Young Gentlemen
  • Speeches, Literary and Social
  • Sunday Under Three Heads
  • A Tale of Two Cities
  • A Tale of Two Cities
  • A Tale of Two Cities
  • A Tale of Two Cities (zipped PDF)
  • The Uncommercial Traveller
  • The Wreck of the Golden Mary
    co-author of:
  • No Thoroughfare
  • No Thoroughfare
    editor of:
  • A House to Let
  • 1855 Piotr Michalowski, Polish artist born on 02 July 1800 or 1801.
    1798 Johann Georg Pforr, German artist born on 04 January 1745.
    Condamnés à mort par la Révolution: ^top^
    1794 (21 prairial an II):
    VIERNE Joseph, passementier, domicilié à Nismes (Gard), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    DEBURE Jean, laboureur, domicilié à Creux (Sarthe), par la commission révolutionnaire séante à Laval, comme brigand de la Vendée.
    LEROY Pierre, aîné, et LEROY René, tisserands, domiciliés à Nuillé-sur-Ouette (Mayenne), comme contre-révolutionnaires, par la commission militaire de Laval.
    Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
    PELLETIER Jacques, cafetier, 70 ans, natif de St Germain (Haute Saône), domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d’être entré en France en 1792 pour servir d’espion et être l’agent des puissances étrangères, et de correspondre avec les émigrés.
    WEYTARD Amable Joseph (dit Fontbouillant), distributeur de tabac, 57 ans, né à Gannat, domicilié à Gusset (Allier).
    VALLEE Pierre Louis, administrateur du district du Puy-la-Montagne, 37 ans, né à St Vast, domicilié à Pontjoi (Eure et Loire), comme ayant versé des pleurs à la mort de Capet, en disant que c’était un assassinat, et en tenant les propos les plus injurieux envers la convention nationale, et le jugement qu’elle avait rendu contre le tyran.
    BEAUFILS Pierre Louis, 54 ans, né à l'Yonne-la-Forêt (Eure), juge de paix, domicilié à la Ferté-les-Bois, canton de Puy-la-Montagne (Eure et Loire), pour avoir fait des adresses en faveur de la tyrannie, pour avoir incarcéré des patriotes, pour s'être apitoyé sur la mort du roi et pour avoir tenu des propos contre-révolutionnaires.
          ... comme conspirateurs:
    PERROY Claude, 60 ans, natif de Marsigny-sur-Loire, ex maître des comptes de Dijon, domicilié à Cercy (Saône et Loire), ... ayant, au mépris des lois, perçu la dîme en nature, et ayant dit lorsqu'on lui offrait des assignats, que ça lui était égal parce qu'il espérait s'en torcher le derrière, dans deux ou trois mois, etc.
    CORMEAUX François Georges, ex curé réfractaire, 47 ans, né et domicilié à Lamballe (Côtes du Nord).
    CROISY Louis, 35 ans, ex curé, né et domicilié au Havre-Libre (Somme).
    ROUGANE André (dit Pinsat) président du bureau de conciliation, 75 ans, né et domicilié à Cusset (Allier).
    HERBAULT Jean Antoine, cultivateur, secrétaire de la municipalité, 30 ans, né à Tonnerre (Orne), ex procureur au ci-devant bailliage de Châteauneuf, domicilié à Moulins (Allier).
    AUVRAY Jean Baptiste, 51 ans né à Paris, ci-devant secrétaire de Gilbert-de-Voisins, président au ci-devant parlement de Paris, commis chez un payeur de rentes, domicilié à Paris.
    CHANTEMERLE Amable, prêtre, 37 ans, né à Thièrs (Puy-de-Dôme), instituteur et homme de lettres, domicilié à Paris.
    GUERBOIS André, valet de chambre tapissier du président Gilbert et voisins, 43 ans, né à Hantiles (Seine et Oise).
    PHORTIEN Nicolas Marie Antoine Mathieu (dit Dépinay), ex noble et lieutenant colonel des grenadiers de Champagne, 58 ans, natif de Laigle (Orne), domicilié à St Sauveur (Eure et Loire).
    LEPELLETIER Louis Jean (dit Labidouderie), avocat et administrateur du district, 45 ans, né et domicilié à Puy-la-Montagne, (Eure et Loire), ... ayant versé des pleure à la mort de Capet, dit que c'était un assassinat et s'étant permis les propos les plus injurieux.
    SLABEURACH Marie Léopold, secrétaire de Puy-la-Montagne, 30 ans, natif de Gournay (Seine Inférieure), domicilié à Puy-la-Montagne (Indre et Loire) [sic].
                 ... domiciliés à la Ferté-les-Bois (Eure et Loire):
    SLABEURACH René Marie Max Léopold, député à l'assemblée législative, 35 ans, natif de Gournay (Seine Inférieure), ... l'un des principaux agents de Capet et de son comité autrichien, et comme ayant provoqué la présentation d'une adresse au tyran roi contre la journée du 20 juin.
    GARNIER Armand Modeste, inspecteur des Bois nationaux de la Ferté-les-Bois, ci-devant garde marteau, 52 ans, né à Veronne (Eure).
    GAURIAUX-DEVAUX (ou GORIAUX-DEVAUX) Pierre René Marc, 62 ans, né au Melle-sur-Sarthe (Orne), ci-devant régisseur de la Ferté-les-Bois.
    LEBOULANGER Jean Guillaume, garde général des bois nationaux, ci-devant, inspecteur des bâtiments, 38 ans, né à Blalouy.
                 ... domiciliés à Saint-Sylvestre, (Puy-de-Dôme):
    DEPONS Elisabeth, 63 ans, née à Pragoulin, ex noble, ex religieuse.
    DEPONS Renée Marguerite, 59 ans, née à Pragoulin, ex noble et religieuse.
    DEPONS René, fils, 34 ans, né à Hesse, paye de Liège, ex noble, officier de marine des Etats-Unis de l'Amérique Septentrionales.
    DEPONS Louis, 69 ans, né à Pragoulin, commune de St Sylvestre, ex noble et chevalier de St Louis.
    CORDE Jean, tisserand, domicilié à Bielles (Ille-et-Vilaine), chef d'attroupement contre-révolutionnaire. par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    RESTIFS Pierre, domestique, laboureur, domicilié à Balazè (Ille-et-Vilaine), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    LASUTTES Jean, médecin, domicilié à Montpellier, département de l'Hérault, comme chef de brigands, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Lozère.
    1676 Hendrik-Jacobszoon Dubbels, Dutch artist born in 1620 or 1621.
    0597 Saint. Columba, 76, pioneer missionary to Scotland. From the Isle of Iona, Columba evangelized the mainland of Scotland and Northumbria.
    0068 Nero, Roman Emperor, suicide
    Births which occurred on a June 09:
    1959 George Washington, first ballistic missile sub, is launched in Groton, Connecticut.
    1958 Donald Michael Santini Mass, murderer (FBI Most Wanted List)
    1956 Patricia Cornwall, bestselling crime novelist       ^top^
          Patricia Cornwall, creator of crime-solving medical examiner Kay Scarpetta, in Miami, Florida.
          Cornwall's family moved to North Carolina when she was seven, shortly after her parents divorced. Her mother had a nervous breakdown when Cornwall was nine and tried to give the children away to evangelist Billy Graham and his wife, Ruth. The Grahams placed the children in foster care and kept an eye on them for years. Cornwall, who attended Davidson College in North Carolina and became a newspaper reporter in Charlotte, later wrote a profile of Ruth Graham, which she turned into her first book, a biography of Graham.
          Cornwall married an English professor some 17 years her senior, who later became a minister. The couple moved to Richmond, Virginia, where Cornwall's character Scarpetta would be based. The couple later divorced. Hoping to become a crime novelist, Cornwall spent six years studying forensic science and working at the morgue. She wrote three novels between 1984 and 1988, all featuring a dashing, adventurous, and poetic detective hero, with a minor medical-examiner character named Kay Scarpetta.
          An editor advised Cornwall to focus on Scarpetta and to write grittier fiction based on everyday crime situations faced by the morgue. Cornwall wrote Postmortem, which was finally accepted by Scribner's after seven other publishers rejected it. The novel won five major mystery awards that year and sold hundreds of thousands of copies in paperback. Cornwall's subsequent Scarpetta novels, including Cruel and Unusual (1993) and Cause of Death (1996), sold in the millions and have been translated into 22 languages, earning her multimillion-dollar advances.
    1951 Ayman Mohamed Rabie El Zawahri, "docteur" du Jihad égyptien         ^top^
         En Egypte, on le surnomme "le Docteur" car il est diplômé de médecine. Ayman El Zawahri, qui figure dans la liste établie par les Etats-Unis, a mis sa conception radicale de l'islamisme au service d'Oussama Ben Laden, dont il est parfois considéré comme le bras droit. Pour un membre des services égyptiens de sécurité, qui l'a interrogé au début des années 1980, le chirurgien serait "un maître cerveau de la planification". De là à en faire le "chef du service Action" d'Al-Qaida, l'organisation de Ben Laden, il n'y a qu'un pas que beaucoup d'experts de l'antiterrorisme se hâtent de franchir.
          Né le 9 juin 1951 à Guiza, au pied des Pyramides, Ayman El Zawahri est le fils d'un professeur de pharmacologie à l'université du Caire. Riche et puissante, sa famille a compté un premier secrétaire de la Ligue arabe et des responsables d'Al-Azhar, la mosquée-université millénaire qui reste la référence de l'islam sunnite. Ayman s'est très vite lancé dans la politique en rejoignant les Frères musulmans, à une époque où beaucoup de dirigeants de la confrérie étaient pendus ou internés. Cela lui a valu, en 1966, son premier dossier à la police de la sécurité de l'Etat. A la faculté de médecine du Caire, Zawahri est devenu un membre actif de ce qui était alors l'embryon de l'organisation extrémiste égyptienne Al-Jihad (guerre sainte) avant de prendre la tête de cette organisation au début des années 1970. Quelques années plus tard, les islamistes sont entrés en conflit ouvert avec le président Anouar El Sadate, qui ne voulait pas leur accorder une charia (législation islamique) pure et dure. Cela allait valoir son arrêt de mort au président, exécuté par Al-Guihad, le 6 octobre 1981.
          Zawahri a figuré parmi les milliers d'islamistes arrêtés après l'assassinat. Mais il a été relaxé trois ans plus tard, par manque de preuves. Tout comme le cheikh Omar Abdel Rahman, la figure de proue de l'autre organisation extrémiste musulmane, la Gamaa islamiya. Les deux hommes ont cheminé ensemble pendant le conflit afghan : le cheikh prêchait pour convaincre de nouvelles recrues arabes et le chirurgien organisait un camp de "moudjahidins arabes" en Afghanistan. La victoire assurée, Zawahri a sillonné l'Europe, au Danemark (1991) et en Suisse (1993), où les extrémistes avaient commencé à s'installer pour prolonger leur combat.
          A cette époque de guerre ouverte avec le régime du président Moubarak, Al-Jihad monte des attentats contre plusieurs ministres. En 1995, à Addis Abeba, le président lui-même échappe de peu à l'assassinat. Le Caire accuse Zawahri, qui se trouverait alors au Soudan. La même année, l'ambassade d'Egypte à Islamabad est détruite par un attentat. Les soupçons se portent sur Zawahri, qui est condamné à mort par contumace en Egypte.
          En 1998, celui qui était déjà très proche de Ben Laden le rejoint officiellement pour combattre "les Américains et les Juifs", en cosignant sa fatwa autorisant l'assassinat des civils dans le cadre du djihad. Le FBI trouve sa patte dans les attentats contre les ambassades américaines du Kenya et de Tanzanie (07 Aug 1998), et plus tard dans l'attaque du destroyer USS Cole au Yémen (12 Oct 2000).
    1944: 23 puppies (record litter) born to Lena, a foxhound, Ambler, Pennsylvania.
    1916 Robert Strange McNamara, in San Francisco       ^top^
          McNamara grew up to receive a degree in Economics from the University of California at Berkeley and an M.B.A from Harvard Business School. At the age of twenty-four, following a brief stint at the accounting firm of Price Waterhouse (now Price Waterhouse Cooper), McNamara returned to Harvard Business School as an accounting instructor. Rejected from the army due to poor eyesight at the outbreak of World War II, McNamara volunteered as an instructor for a Harvard program teaching Army Air Corps officers the principles of systematic management, especially the allocation of personnel, materials, and money. McNamara’s excellence in this field eventually earned him a commission as a Captain in the Army Air Corps, where he was one of the first members of a special unit, the Office of Statistical Control (OSC). Led by Col. Charles Thornton, the OSC was charged with assembling and analyzing data to provide logistical support for American bombers.
          After the war, Thornton marketed his team’s management skills to private companies. Enter Ford Motor Corporation. Reigning atop a messy, outdated family company registering heavy losses, Henry Ford II was smart enough to recognize that the system he had inherited form his grandfather was in need of an overhaul. He hired Thornton’s group, en masse, to begin work in February 1946. The members of the group, labeled the "Whiz Kids," ranged in age from 26 to 34, signaling a major change in Ford’s stodgy hierarchy.
          The Whiz Kids instituted a modern economic approach to Ford’s business administration, implementing organizational changes to make planning and production processes more systematic. Six of them eventually became vice-presidents, and two, McNamara and fellow Whiz Kid Arjay Miller, rose to the position of company president. At Col. Thornton’s departure from Ford, McNamara became the de facto leader of the Whiz Kids. He instituted the systematic sampling of public opinion, known now as "market research"; he hired Ford president Lee Iacocca; and he conceived the Ford Falcon, Ford’s most successful car until the release of the Mustang in 1964.
          A registered Republican, McNamara was offered a cabinet position by John F. Kennedy after the 1960 presidential election, and given the choice of becoming Secretary of Defense or Secretary of the Treasury, he chose the Defense Department. McNamara remained Secretary of Defense until 1968, when his changing attitude toward the war in Vietnam led him to resign. Later he was president of World Bank.
    1893 Cole Porter Indiana, composer/lyricist (Anything Goes, Kiss Me Kate)
    1885 John E. Littlewood, mathematician
    1865 Carl Nielsen Norre-Lyndelse Denmark, composer (Det Uuslukkelige)
    1864 Floris Arntzenius, Duch artist who died in 1925.
    1849 Michael-Peter Ancher, Danish painter who died in 1927. — MORE ON ANCHER AT ART “4” JUNEFishermen Returning HomeTwo FishermenFour FishermenGirl with SunflowersLunch in the GardenYoung Girl KnittingA. Ancher and M. Krøyer (2 ladies in long dresses walking away) — Sea Promenade
    1843 Bertha von Suttner
    1843 Bertha Sophia Felicita Gräfin Kinsky von Chinic und Tettau (Bertha von Suttner), Austria, novelist, pacifist (Peace Nobel 1905)       ^top^
    Baroness von Suttner      Als eine der einflußreichsten, politischen Journalisten ihrer Zeit wurde sie zur Begründerin der deutschen, österreichischen und ungarischen Friedensgesellschaften. Ebenso kämpfte sie gegen die Unterdrückung der Frauen und den Antisemitismus. Ihr Buch Die Waffen nieder (1889) entwickelte sich zum Bestseller. Sie regte die Stiftung des Friedensnobelpreises an — und wurde später selbst die erste weibliche Trägerin dieses Preises (1905).
         Bertha von Suttner und Alfred Nobel freilich verband nicht nur eine enge persönliche Beziehung (allein aus seinem Todesjahr 1896 sind 24 meist sehr lange Briefe von Bertha erhalten), sondern auch darüber hinaus gehende Interessen: Beide arbeiteten sie für den Frieden und gegen den Krieg - wenn auch mit unterschiedlichen Wegvorstellungen. Er hoffte auf Abschreckung durch Entwicklung eines neuen, zu bedrohlichen Kriegsmittels, also auf Technik. Während sie auf Kommunikation, auf internationale Vereinbarungen und Verständigung, auf Verhinderung der Kriegsursachen und Aufklärung setzte. Im Gegensatz zu Bertha von Suttner hatte Nobel an seiner eigenen Haltung aber durchaus Zweifel. Neben der Entwicklung neuer Sprengstoffe förderte er die Friedensbewegung mit erheblichen Geldsummen und verfolgte mit Interesse ihre Entwicklung. Mit seinen noblen Spenden war der Schwede immerhin das großzügigste Mitglied der "Österreichischen Gesellschaft der Friedensfreunde".
          Berthas Buch Die Waffen nieder (1890) begeisterte ihn. Der Entschluß der beiden 1892, gemeinsam ein Buch zu schreiben, wurde zwar nie ausgeführt, doch mündete damals Berthas ständiges Thema, wie Alfred sein Geld am besten für den Frieden einsetzen könne, erstmals in konkrete Pläne eines Friedenspreises. Nobels Testament sollte schließlich enthüllen, welchen Weg diese Idee genommen hatte: Finanziert aus den Zinsen des Vermögens, werden seit 1901 jährlich am 10. Dezember, dem Todestag Nobels (wie auch von Berthas geliebten Gatten Arthur) fünf Preise verliehen. Einer davon steht im Dienste des Friedens. 1905 endlich erhielt Bertha von Suttner als erste Frau diesen Friedensnobelpreis, der nicht zuletzt auf die Anregungen der großen Österreicherin zurückgeht.
         Gestorben ist Bertha von Suttner am 21.Juni 1914, sieben Tage vor Beginn des 1. Weltkrieges.
    1791 John Howard Payne, US author/actor/diplomat.       ^top^
    American-born playwright and actor, who followed the techniques and themes of the European Romantic blank-verse dramatists. A precocious actor and writer, Payne wrote his first play, Julia, or, The Wanderer, when he was 15. Its success caused him to be sent to Union College, Schenectady, N.Y., but family finances forced him to leave two years later. At 18 he made his first stage appearance in John Home's Douglas, but he encountered much opposition from established actors, and in 1813, at the height of the War of 1812, he sailed for England. At first interned as an enemy national, he was later released and triumphed at Drury Lane in Douglas, repeating his success in other European capitals. In Paris Payne met the actor Talma, who introduced him to French drama, from which many of his more than 60 plays were adapted, and to Washington Irving, with whom he was to collaborate on two of his best plays. The finest play Payne authored, Brutus: or, The Fall of Tarquin, was produced at Drury Lane on Dec. 3, 1818. Brutus persisted for 70 years, serving as a vehicle for three of the greatest tragedians of the 19th century: Edwin Booth, Edwin Forrest, and Edmund Kean. Other important plays were Clari: or, The Maid of Milan, which included Payne's famous song "Home, Sweet Home"; Charles the Second (1824), written with Irving; and Thérèse (1821), a French adaptation. Because of weak copyright laws, Payne received little return from his successful plays, and in 1842 he accepted a consular post in Tunis. He died on 9 April 1852 in Tunis.
    PAYNE ONLINE: The Lament of the Cherokee

    'MID PLEASURES and palaces though we may roam,
    Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home;
    A charm from the sky seems to hallow us there,
    Which, seek through the world, is ne'er met with elsewhere.
    Home, home, sweet, sweet home!
    There's no place like home, oh, there's no place like home!

    An exile from home, splendor dazzles in vain;
    Oh, give me my lowly thatched cottage again!
    The birds singing gayly, that came at my call-
    Give me them-and the peace of mind, dearer than all!
    Home, home, sweet, sweet home!
    There's no place like home, oh, there's no place like home!
    I gaze on the moon as I tread the drear wild,
    And feel that my mother now thinks of her child,
    As she looks on that moon from our own cottage door
    the woodbine, whose fragrance shall cheer me no more.
    Home, home, sweet, sweet home!
    There's no place like home, oh, there's no place like home!

    How sweet 'tis to sit 'neath a fond father's smile,
    And the caress of a mother to soothe and beguile!
    Let others delight 'mid new pleasure to roam,
    But give me, oh, give me, the pleasures of home,
    Home, home, sweet, sweet home!
    There's no place like home, oh, there's no place like home!
    To thee I'll return, overburdened with care;
    The heart's dearest solace will smile on me there;
    No more from that cottage again will I roam;
    Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home.
    Home, home, sweet, sweet home
    There's no place like home, oh, there's no place like home!
    1781 George Stephenson inventor (principle RR locomotive)
    1737 Henri-Joseph Antonissen, Flemish artist who died on 04 April 1794.
    1672 Peter the Great (Peter Alekseyevich) (Russian Emperor) — Portrait of Peter the Great.
    1640 Leopold I Emperor of Holy Roman Empire
    1630 (29 May Julian) Charles II, in London, king of England (1660-85) He died on 17 February (6 February Julian) 1685 in London — Carlos II, rey de Inglaterra.
    1597 Pieter Janszoon Zaenredam, Dutch painter who died on 16 August 1665. — LINKSInterior of the Church of St Bavo in Haarlem Interior of the Church of St Odulphus at Assendelft, seen from the Choir to the WestThe Old Town Hall of Amsterdam
    Holidays  Oklahoma : Senior Citizens Day

    Religious Observances Christian : St Pelagia / RC : Ephraem, deacon and doctor / RC : SS Primus and Felician, martyrs / Ang, Luth, RC : Columba, Abbot of Iona / Luth : Aidan and Bede, confessors

    Thought for the day: “Music is the only sensual pleasure without vice.” [other than excessive loudness, dissonance, and sour notes]
    “Next to the slanderer, we detest the bearer of the slander.”
    — Mary Catherwood, US novelist (1847~1901). [What we hate the most about slander is that it is true. Calumny is false.]
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